This is a nice example of mining the existing medical literature to discover trends and attitudes about research. The authors take too dim a view, in my opinion, of what observational studies can show, but the statistics are still interesting to follow.

Vinay Prasad, Joel Jorgenson, John P.A. Ioannidis, Adam Cifu. Observational studies often make clinical practice recommendations: an empirical evaluation of authors’ attitudes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Volume 66, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 361-366.e4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.11.005.

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This Recommendation was added to the website on 2019-01-25 and was last modified on 2020-02-29. You can find similar pages at Observational studies.

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