This is the first in a series of articles on reducing waste in research. It focuses on funding agencies and recommends that funders should support more work on making research replicable, be more transparent on how they set priorities, make sure that research proposals are justified through a systematic review of previous research, and encourage greater openness of research in progress to encourage collagoration. Other articles in this series cover research design, conduct, and analysis, regulation and management, inaccessible research, and incomplete reports of research.

Iain Chalmers, Michael B Bracken, Ben Djulbegovic, Silvio Garattini, Jonathan Grant, A Metin Glmezoglu, David W Howells, John P A Ioannidis, Sandy Oliver. How to increase value and reduce waste when research priorities are set. Lancet 2014; 383: 156–65. Available at


This Recommendation was added to the website on 2017-09-25 and was last modified on 2020-02-29. You can find similar pages at Research design.

An earlier version of this page appears here.