More on propensity score models (June 26, 2006).
Several months ago, I set out to develop some good examples of how to use propensity
scores to adjust for covariate imbalance in an observational study. The original weblog entry
followed by another entry:
I was consulting with someone recently about this very issue and she brought some
additional references to my attention. I then dug a bit further and found some additional
references as well.
Some good general references are
- Causal Effects in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies Via Potential Outcomes: Concepts
and Analytical Approaches. Roderick J. Little, Donald B. Rubin. Annu. Rev Public Health
2000: 21; 121-145.
[Medline] (Evidence, Apples, Observational, Establishing Causation)
- Estimation from nonrandomized
treatment comparisons using subclassification on propensity scores. D. B.
Rubin, Published in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Nonrandomized
Comparative Clinical Studies in Heidelberg, April 10 -11,1997. . Accessed on 2005-01-12.
(Evidence, Internal validity)
- Comparison of logistic regression versus propensity score when the number of events is
low and there are multiple confounders. M. S. Cepeda, R. Boston, J. T. Farrar, B. L.
Strom. Am J Epidemiol 2003: 158(3); 280-7.
(Model, Propensity score)
- Analytic strategies to adjust confounding using exposure propensity scores and disease
risk scores: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and short-term mortality in the elderly.
T. Sturmer, S. Schneeweiss, M. A. Brookhart, K. J. Rothman, J. Avorn, R. J. Glynn. Am J
Epidemiol 2005: 161(9); 891-8.
- Results of multivariable logistic regression, propensity matching, propensity adjustment,
and propensity-based weighting under conditions of nonuniform effect. T. Kurth, A. M.
Walker, R. J. Glynn, K. A. Chan, J. M. Gaziano, K. Berger, J. M. Robins. Am J Epidemiol
2006: 163(3); 262-70.
- Using Propensity
Scores to Adjust for Group Differences: Examples Comparing Alternative Surgical Methods
[PDF]. David J. Pasta, published in the proceedings of the 25th annual Sas
Users Group International meeting. Accessed on 2006-06-26.
Three good published applications of the propensity score model are
- Surgical Revascularization Versus Amputation for Peripheral Vascular Disease in Dialysis
Patients: A Cohort Study. C.M. Logar, L.M. Pappas, N. Ramkumar, S. Beddhu. BMC 2005:
6(1); 3. [Abstract]
Corroboration, Strong association)
- Does prophylactic sotalol and magnesium decrease the incidence of atrial fibrillation
following coronary artery bypass surgery: a propensity-matched analysis. V Aerra, M
Kuduvalli, AN Moloto, AK Srinivasan, AD Grayson, BM Fabri, AY Oo. Journal of Cardiothoracic
Surgery 2006: 1(6);
[Abstract] [Full text]
(Model, Linear regression)
- Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results
of the SOAP study. JL Vincent, Y Sakr, K Reinhart, CL Sprung, H Gerlach, VM Ranieri.
Crit Care 2005: 9(6); R745-54.
[PDF] (Model, Linear regression,
There is also an R library, USPS, that will compute propensity score models.
This page was written by
Steve Simon while working at Children's Mercy Hospital. Although I do not hold the copyright for this material, I am reproducing it here as a service, as it is no longer available on the Children's Mercy Hospital website. Need more
information? I have a page with general help
resources. You can also browse for pages similar to this one at Category: Covariate adjustment.