The title is a bit misleading. It does not involve financial or non-financial conflicts of interest, but rather when clinical researchers violate the rules of a clinical trial for the perceived benefits of an individual patient. An anonymous survey reveals that this practice is quite common.
Lidz CW, Appelbaum PS, Joffe S, Albert K, Rosenbaum J, Simon L. Competing commitments in clinical trials. IRB. 2009;31(5):1-6. Available in html format or PDF format.