P.Mean >> Category >> Interesting articles.

This category lists interesting articles that I have mentioned on my weblog. Most of these articles are in peer-reviewed journals. I list links to full text and/or PDFs when they are available. Articles are listed in alphabetical order by title.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L

M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X

Y | Z | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9

Articles that serve as illustrative examples

Individual articles not yet in the proper format

Webpages with articles not yet in the common format

A

  1. Absolute and relative truth in clinical trials. D. Julian. Lancet 2002: 359(9321); 1945-1946. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: MeasuringBenefitRisk. Description: This article criticizes a recent publication for failing to present risk in absolute rather than relative terms.
  2. The abuse of power: the pervasive fallacy of power calculations for data analysis. John M Hoenig, Dennis M Heisey. The American Statistician 2001: 55(1); 19-24. This article is cited in Category: PostHocPower. Description: This article demonstrates that several different approaches for calculating post-hoc power are flawed and can produce misleading conclusions. Once a confidence interval has been computed, there is no additional information that a post hoc power calculation can provide.
  3. Academic freedom in clinical research. D. G. Nathan, D. J. Weatherall. N Engl J Med 2002: 347(17); 1368-71. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article summarizes the Nancy Oliveri case. Dr. Olivieri was a researcher who was determined to present information about safety problems with a drug she was studying, in violation of a confidentiality agreement with the drug company that sponsored the research. This case illustrates the need to avoid agreements with drug companies that allow those companies to completely bar publication of unfavorable results.
  4. Academic Relationships with Industry: A New Model for Biomedical Research. H Moses, JB Martin. JAMA 2001: 285(7); 933 - 935. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article proposes several general principles for managing the increasingly complex financial ties between academic research institutions and industry.
  5. Academic-corporate ties in biotechnology: a quantitative study. S. Krimsky, J. G. Ennis, R. Weissman. Sci Technol Human Values 1991: 16(3); 275-87. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: Coming soon!
  6. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis among alcohol-abusing men. K. J. Hamberg, B. Carstensen, T. I. Sorensen, K. Eghoje. J Clin Epidemiol 1996: 49(11); 1295-301. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: DiagnosticTesting. Description: This article shows the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity in a simpler, but less effective way by plotting the sensitivity and specificity as two separate curves.
  7. All Gifts Large and Small - Toward an Understanding of the Ethics of Pharmaceutical Industry Gift-Giving. Dana Katz, Arthur L. Caplan, Jon F. Merz The American Journal of Bioethics 2003: 3(3); 39-46. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article notes that even gifts of negligible value can influence behavior and recommends that arbitrary value limits for reporting are inappropriate.
  8. Alternative medicine--the risks of untested and unregulated remedies. M. Angell, J. P. Kassirer. New England Journal of Medicine 1998: 339(12); 839-41. This article is cited in Category: TeachingResources. Excerpt: It is time for the scientific community to stop giving alternative medicine a free ride. There cannot be two kinds of medicine - conventional and alternative. There is only medicine that has been adequately tested and medicine that has not, medicine that works and medicine that may or may not work. Once a treatment has been tested rigorously, it no longer matters whether it was considered alternative at the outset. If it is found to be reasonably safe and effective, it will be accepted. But assertions, speculation, and testimonials do not substitute for evidence. Alternative treatments should be subjected to scientific testing no less rigorous than that required for conventional treatments.
  9. An alternative to null-hypothesis significance tests. P. R. Killeen. Psychol Sci 2005: 16(5); 345-53. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: HypothesisTesting. Description: This article describes p-rep, a statistic that measures the probability of replication. The article argues that this measure is superior to the p-value and also covers the mathematical details needed for calculation of the statistic.
  10. Analysis of means used to compare providers' referral patterns. K. Homa. Qual Manag Health Care 2007: 16(3); 256-64. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: AnalysisOfMeans. Description: This article provides an illustrative example of analysis of means (ANOM).
  11. Analyzing high-density oligonucleotide gene expression array data. EE Schadt, C Li, C Su, WH Wong. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2000: 80(2); 192-202. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DataMining. Description: This article presents an analysis approach for Affymetrix chips that includes background correction, normalization, and measurement of differential expression.
  12. Applying evidence to the individual patient. SE Straus, DL Sackett. Ann Oncol 1999: 10(1); 29-32. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: MeasuringBenefitRisk. Description: This paper provides practical guidance on the NNT/NNH tradeoffs.
  13. Are placebo run ins justified? SJ Senn. BMJ 1997: 314(7088); 1191-3. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: PlaceboControlledTrials. Description: This article criticizes the use of placebos at the start of a study to estimate compliance patterns and to potentially exclude patients who do not comply well with the research protocol. The author argues that this practice is deceptive and leads to poor science.
  14. Are subjects in pharmacological treatment trials of depression representative of patients in routine clincal practice? M Zimmerman, JI Mattia, Michael A Posternak. American Journal of Psychiatry 2002: 159(3); 469-473. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ExclusionsInResearch. Description: This article compares the typical patients with depression treated in routine clinical practice against the exclusion criteria used in a standard clinical trial of depression. Ony 41 of the original 346 patients would have been eligible for enrollment in a typical clinical trial.
  15. The “Arms Race” on American Roads: The Effect of SUV’s and Pickup Trucks on Traffic Safety [pdf]. Michelle J. White. 2004: XLVII(2); 333-356. [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: MeasuringBenefitRisk. Description: This web publication paper calculates expected deaths if a million drivers switched from light trucks to cars. It could easily be adapted to NNT and NNH calculations.
  16. Article makes simple errors and could cause unnecessary deaths. C. Baigent, R. Collins, R. Peto. British Medical Journal 2002: 324(7330); 167. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: CriticalAppraisal. Description: This article offers a critical review of a critical review (Cleland 2002). Cleland cited issues a large randomized trial of aspirin for prevention of heart attacks and with a meta-analysis. Baigent et al argue that the claims of Cleland are "wrong for trivial reasons and potentially damaging to patients."
  17. Assessing faculty financial relationships with industry: A case study. E. A. Boyd, L. A. Bero. Jama 2000: 284(17); 2209-14. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article summarizes the financial relationships that faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco have with external sponsors of clinical research. This occurs about 8% of the time. The finncial relationships typically involve paid speaking engagements and consulting agreements. A smaller proportion involved equity holding or participation on an advisory board.
  18. Assessment of the relationship between signal intensities and transcript concentration for Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. E. Chudin, R. Walker, A. Kosaka, S. X. Wu, D. Rabert, T. K. Chang, D. E. Kreder. Genome Biol 2002: 3(1); RESEARCH0005. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DataMining. Description: This article presents some data on the performance of Affymetrix chips using spiked samples.
  19. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions: epidemiological study of randomised clinical trials published in the BMJ. LL Kjaergard, B Als-Nieslen. BMJ 2002: 325; 249 - 252. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article notes that publications noting financial competing interests led to different reporting results compared to publications reporting no competing interests. This effect could not be explained by methodological quality or other factors. Interestingly, publications reporting other types of competing interests did not differ in reporting results.
  20. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? B. Als-Nielsen, W. Chen, C. Gluud, L. L. Kjaergard. Jama 2003: 290(7); 921-8. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article notes that industry funded studies are more likely to recommend the experimental drug. This result apears to be associated not with any particular finding of better efficacy or better safety, but rather a biased interpretation of trial results.
  21. Avoiding conflicts of interest in drug research. A. R. Feinstein, R. I. Horwitz. N Engl J Med 1979: 301(18); 1009. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: Coming soon!
  22. Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. M. Bhandari, J. W. Busse, D. Jackowski, V. M. Montori, H. Schunemann, S. Sprague, D. Mears, E. H. Schemitsch, D. Heels-Ansdell, P. J. Devereaux. Cmaj 2004: 170(4); 477-80. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article provides evidence that randomized trials sponsored by industry are more likley to report results favorable to the sponsoring company and compares these results to other studies looking at this issue. 

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  23. Bagging Survival Trees. Torsten Hothorn, Berthold Lausen, Axel Benner, Martin Radespiel-Troger. 2004: 23(1); 77-91. [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: DataMining. Description: This article discusses the use of bagging (bootstrap aggregation) for survival models with a large number of predictor variables.
  24. Being a modern pharmaceutical company: involves making information available on clinical trial programmes. R. Sykes. British Medical Journal 1998: 317(7167); 1172. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article highlights the policy at GlaxoWellcome to register information on all the clinical trials that it conducts.
  25. Benefit of heparin in peripheral venous and arterial catheters: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. A. G. Randolph, D. J. Cook, C. A. Gonzales, M. Andrew. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7136); 969-75. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: RandomizationInResearch. Description: This article is a meta-analysis that cites three examples of alternating or haphazard assignment and excludes them from the review.
  26. Beyond conflict of interest. Transparency is the key [editorial]. R Smith. Bmj 1998: 317(7154); 291-2. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article presents the case that conflict of interest is more than a theoretical concern and outlines changes in the conflict of interest policy at BMJ. 
  27. Bias in analytic research. D. L. Sackett. J Chronic Dis 1979: 32(1-2); 51-63. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: Coming soon!
  28. Bias in location and selection of studies. M. Egger, G. D. Smith. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7124); 61-6. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This article reviews publication bias and several related types of bias, including language bias, database bias, and inclusion bias.
  29. Biases in the interpretation and use of research results. RJ MacCoun. Annu Rev Psychol 1998: 49; 259-87. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: CriticalAppraisal. Description: This article provides several fascinating examples of people's tendency to be hypercritical of research findings that they dislike and to overlook the flaws of research that they favor.
  30. Blood lead levels, scientific misconduct and the Needleman case. 3. A reply from Scarr and Ernhart. S Scarr, CB Ernhart. Am J Public Health 1996: 86(1); 113-4; author reply 114-5. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: Coming soon!
  31. Background frequencies for residue variability estimates: BLOSUM revisited. I. Mihalek , I. Res and O. Lichtarge BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8:488doi:10.1186/1471-2105-8-488. [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Information theory. Description: This paper adjusts the classic measure of entropy developed by Claude Shannon to account for different mutation probabilities.
  32. Bayesian Models for Gene Expression With DNA Microarray. Joseph G. Ibrahim, Ming-Hui Chen, Robert J. Gray. J American Statistical Association 2002: 97(457); 88-99. [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Bayesian statistics, Category: Data mining. Description: This article presents a Bayesian selection criteria for identifying a small set of genes that can distinguish between different types of tissue.
  33. Being a modern pharmaceutical company: involves making information available on clinical trial programmes [editorial]. Sykes R. British Medical Journal 1998: 317(7167); 1172. [Full text] [PDF] This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  34. Beyond conflict of interest. Transparency is the key [editorial]. Smith R. Bmj 1998: 317(7154); 291-2. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  35. Bias in location and selection of studies. Egger M, Smith GD. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7124); 61-6. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  36. Blind Prejudice - "Hard" scientists believe they are immune to bias. Robert Matthews. New Scientist 1998: (2117); 12. [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: BlindingInResearch. Description: This article makes the claim that parapsychology is far more rigorous than other scientific methods because their research papers use blinding far more often than other disciplines. It includes a quote from Rupert Sheldrake Most hard scientists take it for granted that blind techniques are unnecessary in their own field. Parapsychologists, on the other hand, have been constantly subjected to intense scrutiny by sceptics, and this has made them more rigorous." This claim is overly simplistic in my opinion, because blinding is just one of many dimensions of quality that need to be considered.
  37. Blood lead levels, scientific misconduct and the Needleman case. 3. A reply from Scarr and Ernhart. Scarr S, Ernhart CB. Am J Public Health 1996: 86(1); 113-4; author reply 114-5. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.

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  38. Calculating Confidence Intervals for Threshold and Post-Test Probabilities. I. Hozo, B Djulbegovic. M.D. Computing 1998: 15(2); 110-5. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: DiagnosticTesting. Description: This article describes a program that calculates confidence intervals for post-test probabilities in a diagnostic setting.
  39. Changeovers of vasoactive drug infusion pumps: impact of a quality improvement program. Laurent Argaud , Martin Cour , Olivier Martin , Marc Saint-Denis , Tristan Ferry , Agnes Goyatton and Dominique Robert Critical Care 2007, 11:R133doi:10.1186/cc6209. [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Adverse events in clinical trials. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a simple before and after design for assessing standardization of procedures. I want to contrast this approach with the use of control charts for tracking quality improvements.
  40. Changeovers of vasoactive drug infusion pumps: impact of a quality improvement program. L. Argaud, M. Cour, O. Martin, M. Saint-Denis, T. Ferry, A. Goyatton, D. Robert. Crit Care 2007: 11(6); R133. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: AdverseEvents. Description: This article presents a quality improvement approach for reducing adverse events associated with the changeover in a vasoactive infusion pump.
  41. Cholesterol lowering trials in coronary heart disease: frequency of citation and outcome. U. Ravnskov. British Journal of Medicine 1992: 305(6844); 15-19. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This article examines 22 cholesterol lowering trials and found that positive trials were cited six times more frequently. This illustrates a tendency for researchers to preferentially cite trials that support the prevailing viewpoint.
  42. Clinical trials: the viewpoint of children. J Cherrill, H Hudson, C Cocking, V Unsworth, L Franck, J McIntyre and I Choonara. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2007;92:712-713 doi:10.1136/adc.2006.114207. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Children in research. Description: How well do children understand the research process? This paper summarizes a semi-structured interviews of 30 children from 8 to 16 years old. Most of these children understood that there were risks associated with participating in a clinical trial and had a variety of opinions about financial incentives.
  43. Clinical trial registration: looking back and moving ahead. Christine Laine, Richard Horton, Catherine De Angelis, Jeffrey M Drazen, Frank A Frizelle, Fiona Godlee, Charlotte Haug, Paul C Hébert, Sheldon Kotzin, Ana Marusic, Peush Sahni, Torben V Schroeder, Harold C Sox, Martin B Van Der Weyden and Freek W A Verheugt. MJA 2007; 186 (12): 612-613. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias. Description: The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors met to review their policy of requiring that clinical trials be registered prior to collecting data. If a clinical trial failed to register, then the results could not be published in any of the participating journals. This article clarifies this policy. Any research study "that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes" must be registered. The World Health Organization is developing a clearinghouse and system that unites a variety of individual registries and which would simplify both the submission process and the process of searching through the databases for relevant studies.
  44. Cluster without fluster: The effect of correlated outcomes on inference in randomized clinical trials. M. Proschan, D. Follmann. Stat Med 2008: 27(6); 795-809. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: MixedModels. Description: This article discusses research studies where clusters of patients appear after the data is collected. For example, some patients in an AIDS trial invite their partners to join the study. This is in contrast to a cluster randomized trial where the clusters are defined and incorporated into a research design. Clustering that appears in a simple randomized trial does violate the assumptions that observations are independent, but under fairly mild conditions, the statistics in these studies behave reasonably.
  45. Comparative response to a survey executed by post, email, & web form. Gi Woong Yun, Craig W Trumbo. JCMC 2000: 6(1); [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: SurveyDesign. Description: This article studies a data collection approach that used postal mail, e-mail, and a web-based form. Each method tended to solicit a different group of respondents. The authors conclude that using multiple methods to collect data will provide a more representative sample.
  46. Comparison of hospital episode statistics and central cardiac audit database in public reporting of congenital heart surgery mortality. Stephen Westaby, Nicholas Archer, Nicola Manning, Satish Adwani, Catherine Grebenik, Oliver Ormerod, Ravi Pillai, Neil Wilson. BMJ 2007;335:759 (13 October), doi:10.1136/bmj.39318.644549.AE. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Unusual data. Description: One of the more lively debates in medicine today is the use of report cards to summarize performance of hospitals and/or individual physicians. This paper takes individual statistics compiled by hospitals (hospital episode statistics) and compares them to a centralized database. There are large discrepancies between the two, and the authors suggest that individual hospitals should spend the effort to more rigorously collect and validate their data.
  47. Conflict of interest and cost-effectiveness analysis. S. Krimsky. Jama 1999: 282(15); 1474-5. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article reviews the viewpoints for an against disclosing financial conflicts of interest. Then the author summarizes a research publication of the influence of financial support in studies of cost effectiveness.
  48. Conflict of interest and the public trust. CD DeAngelis. JAMA 2000: 284(17); 2237-2238. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article summarizes an issue of JAMA devoted to conflict of interest issues. The authors note the problems with industry support of research, but argue that it is untenable to simply ban industry funding.
  49. Conflict of interest and the physician-researcher. M. L. Elks. J Lab Clin Med 1995: 126(1); 19-23. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article suggests that indirect research support may undermine the investigator's role to serve first as an advocate for his/her patient.
  50. Conflict of interest in the debate over calcium-channel antagonists. HT Stelfox, G Chua, K O'Rourke, AS Detsky. N Engl J Med 1998: 338(2); 101-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article reviews a series of publications examining the safety of calcium channel antogonists. Authors were more likely to have a financial ties if their articles were positive towards calcium-channel antagonists than those neutral or critical.
  51. CONSORT for Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Journal and Conference Abstracts: Explanation and Elaboration. S. Hopewell, M. Clarke, D. Moher, E. Wager, P. Middleton, D. G. Altman, K. F. Schulz. PLoS Med 2008: 5(1); e20. [Medline] [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: WritingResearchPapers. Description: This article describes the type of information that any abstract describing a randomized clinical trial should contain.
  52. Correlation coefficients in medical research: from product moment correlation to the odds ratio. H. C. Kraemer. Stat Methods Med Res 2006: 15(6); 525-45. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Measuring agreement. Description: There are several measures of agreement (such as the phi coefficient, the point biserial correlation, and the tetrachoric correlation) that are used to show relationships when one or both variables are binary. This paper shows the interrelationships and the interpretation of these correlations and relates them to other measures not traditionally thought of as measures of correlation, such as the odds ratio.
  53. Current Controlled Trials: an opportunity to help improve the quality of clinical research. I. Chalmers. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc med 2000: 1(1); 3-8. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This articles describes a new journal, Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine, that encourages registration of all trials, reporting both positive and negative trials, and using systematic reviews to set the direction for future research.

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  54. Data inconsistencies in abstracts of articles in Clinical Chemistry. Siebers R. Clin Chem 2001; 47(1): 149. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Writing research papers. Description: A review of 87 articles published in Clinical Chemistry from January to June 2000 noted that 20 articles (23%) contained data in the abstract that were inconsistent with the main article or entirely missing from the main article. Some discrepancies were minor, but many were not.
  55. Database of mRNA gene expression profiles of multiple human organs. C. G. Son, S. Bilke, S. Davis, B. T. Greer, J. S. Wei, C. C. Whiteford, Q. R. Chen, N. Cenacchi, J. Khan. Genome Res 2005: 15(3); 443-50. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: TeachingResources. Description: This article describes an interesting data set, available for free on the web, that represents DNA expression levels for a 158 tissues (19 different organs from 30 different individuals).
  56. Debating how to do ethical research in developing countries. Anthony Costello. The Lancet 2007; 370:1025-1026 DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61461-5. [Full text] [PDF] This article is cited in Category: Ethics in research. Description: This is a review of the book Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research: A Casebook. James V Lavery, Christine Grady, Elizabeth R Wahl and Ezekiel J Emanuel, eds. Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp 400. £32·99. ISBN 0-19-517922-4. This book contains 21 case studies of recently published research. The review is mostly positive. Dr. Costello likes the fact that the book raises more questions than answers, and characterizes the perspectives as "self-reflection without dogma."
  57. Decision theoretic designs for Phase II clinical trials with multiple outcomes. Nigel Stallard. Biometrics 1999: 55; 971-77. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Bayesian statistics, Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article provides a Bayesian approach to handling multiple comparisons in a trial where with multiple safety and efficacy endpoints.
  58. Determinants of abstract acceptance for the Digestive Diseases Week--a cross sectional study. Timmer A, Hilsden RJ, Sutherland LR. BMC Med Res Methodol 2001: 1(1); 13. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  59. Do certain countries produce only positive results? A systematic review of controlled trials. Vickers A, Goyal N, Harland R, Rees R. Control Clin Trials 1998: 19(2); 159-66. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  60. Do multiple outcome measures require p-value adjustment? R. J. Feise. BMC Med Res Methodol 2002: 2(1); 8. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article criticizes the use of Bonferroni corrections. It suggests that readers should instead assess the quality of the study, the magnitude of the effect, and consider results from similar studies. Researchers should select a primary outcome or use a single composite measure rather than relying on Bonferroni.
  61. Does the inclusion of grey literature influence estimates of intervention effectiveness reported in meta-analyses? McAuley L, Pham B, Tugwell P, Moher D. Lancet 2000: 356(9237); 1228 - 1231. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  62. Does the type of competing interest statement affect readers' perceptions of the credibility of research? Randomised trial. S Schroter, J Morris, S Chaudhry, R Smith, H Barratt. BMJ 2004: 328(7442); 742-3. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Excerpt: Financial relationships among industry and academic institutions are diverse and common. These interests can influence authors' conclusions and readers' perceptions of published studies. We report the effects on reader perceptions of different statements of competing interests for two manuscripts.
  63. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell? Transfer and Sale of De-Identified Patient Data. Gabrielle B. Goldstein, Jill H. Gordon. Journal of Clinical Research Best Practices 2008: 4(4); [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: PrivacyInResearch. Description: This article reviews the privacy regulations associated with research and offers an explanation of de-identifed data. The authors raise some provocative issues about individual property rights to medical data, even data that has been de-identified.

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  64. The effect of Web 2.0 on the future of medical practice and education: Darwikinian evolution or folksonomic revolution? Rick McLean, Brian H Richards and Janet I Wardman. MJA 2007; 187(3): 174-177. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Writing research papers. Description: Recent changes on the web that make it more interactive (collectively referred to as Web 2.0) have a potentially large impact on medicine. This article summarizes developments like Really Simple Syndication, blogs, wikis, and podcasts and their impact on heath care practice and education.
  65. Electronic trial banks: a complementary method for reporting randomized trials. Sim I, Owens DK, Lavori PW, Rennels GD. Med Decis Making 2000: 20(4); 440-50. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  66. Empirical assessment of effect of publication bias on meta-analyses. Sutton AJ, Duval SJ, Tweedie RJ, Abrams KR, Jones DR. British Medical Journal 2000: 320; 1574-1577. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  67. Empirical-Bayes adjustments for multiple comparisons are sometimes useful. S. Greenland, J. M. Robins. Epidemiology 1991: 2(4); 244-51. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Bayesian statistics, Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article proposes situations where adjustments for multiple comparisons are appropriate. The authors offer Empirical-Bayes and fully Bayesian approaches and describe their advantages over the traditional Bonferroni approach.
  68. Empirical Evidence for Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials: Comparison of Protocols to Published Articles. Chan A-W, MD, Hrobjartsson A, MD, PhD, Haahr MT, BSc, Gotzsche PC, MD, DrMedSci, Altman DG, DSc. Journal of the American Medical Association 2004: 291(20); 2457-65. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  69. Enhancing research integrity. Vincent V. Richman and Alex Richman. CMAJ. August 14, 2007; 177 (4). doi:10.1503/cmaj.1070059. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Fraud in research. Description: The authors suggest a decentralized approach to preventing research misconduct based on the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This law was passed to prevent fraudulent accounting practices, but many of the provisions can be adapted to a research setting.
  70. In the Era of Systematic Reviews, Does the Size of an Individual Trial Still Matter. Gordon H. Guyatt, Edward J. Mills, Diana Elbourne. PLoS Medicine Vol. 5, No. 1, e4 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050004. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Sample size justification. Description: Gordon Guyatt and Edward Mills argue that a requirement that all trials have a sample size justification has prevented a large number of research studies from starting. These studies, even though they each individually would fail to have appropriate power and precision, would contribute to a systematic overview that would be able to produce definitive results. Diana Elbourne argues that if a small negative trial stifles the production of further trials, then the systematic overview will not get a sufficient number of small trials. I think that both authors miss the point. I have argued that a systematic overview is like a multi-center trial where each center gets to use its own protocol and where the centers have the option of not reporting their data. There are no meta-analytic tools that can patch up a large number of small inadequately powered trials. A better solution is to encourage more collaborative multi-center trials rather than a patchwork of small single center trials.
  71. Estimating effect sizes: Bias resulting from the significance criterion in editorial decisions. Lane D, Dunlap W. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 1978: 31; 107-112. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  72. Evaluating the quality of articles published in journal supplements compared with the quality of those published in the parent journal. Rochon P, Gurwitz J, Cheung M, Hayes J, Chalmers T. JAMA 1994: 272; 108 - 113. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  73. Evidence-based practice: extending the search to find material for the systematic review. Helmer D, Savoie I, Green C, Kazanjian A. Bull Med Libr Assoc 2001: 89(4); 346-52. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  74. The existence of publication bias and risk factors for its occurrence. Dickersin K. Jama 1990: 263(10); 1385-9. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.

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  75. Factors influencing publication of research results. Follow-up of applications submitted to two institutional review boards. K. Dickersin, Y. I. Min, et al. Jama 1992; 267(3): 374-8. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias. Description: This paper reviews 737 IRB approved studies at The Johns Hopkins Health Institutions and finds that the 124 unpublished studies were 2.5 more likely to show negative results. This publication bias appears to be due to the authors because only 6 of the 124 unpublished studies were rejected for publication.
  76. Fair conduct and fair reporting of clinical trials. Rennie D. Jama 1999: 282(18); 1766-8. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  77. False positive outcomes and design characteristics in occupational cancer epidemiology studies. GG Swaen, O Teggeler, LG van Amelsvoort. Int J Epidemiol 2001: 30(5); 948-54. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article reviews a series of false positive conclusions in epidemiologic research. The authors find that failure to develop a specific a priori hypothesis led to a three fold greater risk of producing a false positive conclusion.

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  78. GlaxoSmithKline faces US lawsuit over concealment of trial results. Dyer O. Bmj 2004: 328(7453); 1395. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  79. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. G. H. Guyatt, A. D. Oxman, G. E. Vist, R. Kunz, Y. Falck-Ytter, P. Alonso-Coello, H. J. Schunemann. BMJ 2008: 336(7650); 924-6. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: SystematicOverviews. Description: This article presents the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system for rating evidence in a systematic overview or a clinical guideline. The system examines the quality of evidence, uncertainty about the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, uncertainty or variability in values and preferences, and uncertainty about whether the intervention represents a wise use of resources.

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  80. Haploview: analysis and visualization of LD and haplotype maps. Barrett JC, Fry B, Maller J and Daly MJ Bioinformatics 2005; 21(2): 263-5. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Data Mining. Description: This article describes a program written in JAVA to calculate linkage disequilibrium values and haplotype patterns.
  81. How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. Egger M, Jüni P, Bartlett C, Holenstein F, Sterne J. Health Technology Assessment 2003: 7(1); [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  82. How Quickly Do Systematic Reviews Go Out of Date? A Survival Analysis. Kaveh G. Shojania, Margaret Sampson, Mohammed T. Ansari, Jun Ji, Steve Doucette, and David Moher. Annals of Internal Medicine (2007, Aug 21), 147(4): 224-233. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Systematic overviews. Description: Systematic reviews summarize all the data up to a certain time, so they can become "stale" over time. The authors selected a sample of systematic reviews and noted how often a new review of the same topic presented a change in statistical significance or a large change in the estimated magnitude of the effect. Using classic measures in survival analysis, the authors estimated half of the studies did not see such a shift until 5.5 years, but a significant fraction saw such a signal after one or two years.
  83. How to interpret figures in reports of clinical trials. Stuart J. Pocock, Thomas G. Travison, Lisa M. Wruck. BMJ 2008: 336(7654); 1166-1169. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: GraphicalDisplay. Description: This article reviews several commonly used data display methods and explains what a non-technical reader should look for. [[Note that full text and PDF are not available to the general public until December 2008]]
  84. How useful are unpublished data from the Food and Drug Administration in meta-analysis? MacLean CH, Morton SC, Ofman JJ, Roth EA, Shekelle PG. J Clin Epidemiol 2003: 56(1); 44-51. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  85. HRT: a reappraisal of the risks and benefits. Alastair H MacLennan. MJA 2007; 186 (12): 643-646 [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Observational studies. Description: Research goes in cycles. Ten years ago, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was recommended for most women on the basis of observational studies that showed that it reduced the risk of heart attacks. Two studies published near the turn of the century indicated that this might not be the case. These were randomized studies and were thought to be more definitive than the observational studies. There was a difference, though, in the conduct of the randomized trials and the observational studies, most notably the age at which HRT was initiated. A recent analysis of the data seems to suggest that HRT is protective if it is initiated early. I'm not an expert on HRT, but the lesson to be learned here is that no trials are capable of producing perfectly accurate results and you need to react to these trials carefully rather than with a checklist mentality (randomized=good, observational=bad).

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  86. If we're so different, why do we keep overlapping? When 1 plus 1 doesn't make 2. R. Wolfe, J. Hanley. CMAJ 2002: 166(1); 65-6. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConfidenceIntervals. Description: This article provides a simple explanation why two overlapping confidence intervals is not t he same as showing that the two means are not statistically different from one another.
  87. Impact of covert duplicate publication on meta-analysis: a case study. Tramer M, Reynolds D, Moore R, McQuay H. BMJ 1997: 315(7109); 635-40. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  88. Impact of FUTON and NAA bias on visibility of research. N. S. Murali, H. R. Murali, P. Auethavekiat, P. J. Erwin, J. N. Mandrekar, N. J. Manek, A. K. Ghosh. Mayo Clin Proc 2004: 79(8); 1001-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: The article examines journals with full text on the net (FUTON) and found that they had higher impact factors after converting to FUTON.
  89. Impact of FUTON and NAA bias on visibility of research. Murali NS, Murali HR, Auethavekiat P, Erwin PJ, Mandrekar JN, Manek NJ, Ghosh AK. Mayo Clin Proc 2004: 79(8); 1001-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  90. Implementing evidence based medicine in general practice: audit and qualitative study of antithrombotic treatment for atrial fibrillation. Howitt A, Armstrong D. British Medical Journal 1999: 318(7194); 1324-1327. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  91. Is academic medicine for sale? Angell M. N Engl J Med 2000: 342(20); 1516-8. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.

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  92. Journal Policies on Conflict of Interest: If This Is the Therapy, What's the Disease? Sheldon Krimsky. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2001: 70; 155-117. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: This article criticizes the policies that most journals have for reporting conflicts of interest.

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  93. Knee-heel length measurement in healthy preterm infants. Ian J Griffin, NM Pang, J Perring, RJ Cooke. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1999: 81(1); 50-55. This article is cited in Category: MeasuringAgreement. Description: This article provides an illustrative example of how to use the coeficient of variation to measure agreement on a continuous trait among several raters.

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  94. Language bias in randomised controlled trials published in English and German. M. Egger, T. Zellweger-Zahner, M. Schneider, C. Junker, C. Lengeler, G. Antes. Lancet 1997: 350(9074); 326-9. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This article found articles published in German which had a matching article published by the same author at about the same time, but using a different data set and published in English. In 62% of the English language articles, but only in 35% of the German language articles were there reports of a statistically significant finding (P<.05).
  95. Linear Information Models: An Introduction. Philip E. Cheng, Jiun W. Liou, Michelle Liou and John A. D. Aston. Journal of Data Science, v.5, no.3, 297-313. [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Information theory. Description: The classic analysis of variance model involves partitioning variances into several discrete components. You can use a similar approach for categorical data by partitioning measures of entropy and information. This article introduces how this is done for a few simple examples.

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  96. Making a difference: the clinical research programme for children. Rosalind L Smyth. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2007;92:835-837; doi:10.1136/adc.2006.113357. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Children in research. Description: This paper identifies ten highly cited research trials involving children and discusses how these trials have had an impact on practice. The authors also describe a recent initiative, the Medicines for Children Research Network.
  97. Meta-analysis and the meta-epidemiology of clinical research. Registration of trials should be required by editors and registering agencies [letter; comment]. Julian D. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7127); 311. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  98. Methods for confidence interval estimation of a ratio parameter with application to location quotients. J. Beyene, R. Moineddin. BMC Med Res Methodol 2005: 5; 32. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ConfidenceIntervals. Description: This article reviews the methods for computing a confidence interval for a ratio of two means and examines their performance using a simulation.
  99. Methods of correcting for multiple testing: operating characteristics. B. W. Brown, K. Russell. Statistics in Medicine 1997: 16(22); 2511-28. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article reviewed 17 different methods for adusting p-values, including the Bonferroni correction, in a computer simulation. There was no uniformly best approach, but as a group, four methods did appear to be better than the rest.
  100. Minimizing the three stages of publication bias. Chalmers TC, Frank CS, Reitman D. Jama 1990: 263(10); 1392-5. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  101. Misleading funnel plot for detection of bias in meta-analysis. Tang JL, Liu JL. J Clin Epidemiol 2000: 53(5); 477-84. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  102. Missed and delayed diagnoses in the ambulatory setting. E. S. Berner, R. A. Miller, M. L. Graber. Ann Intern Med 2007: 146(6); 470; author reply 470-1. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DiagnosticTesting. Description: This letter to the editor criticizes the use of malpractice claims to identify misdiagnosis rates.
  103. Molecular Classification of Cancer: Class Discovery and Class Prediction by Gene Expression. T.R. Golub, D.K. Slonim, P. Tamayo, C. Huard, M. Gaasenbeek, J.P. Mesirov, H. Coller, M. Loh, J.R. Downing, M.A. Caligiuri, C.D. Bloomfield, E.S. Lander. Science 1999: 286; 531-537. [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DataMining. Description: This article provides an illustrative example of how to apply class discovery and class prediction in a microarray study. The data sets used in the paper are available on the abstract URL.
  104. More insight into the fate of biomedical meeting abstracts: a systematic review. Von Elm E, Costanza MC, Walder B, Tramer MR. BMC Med Res Methodol 2003: 3(1); 12. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  105. Multiple Publication of reports of Drug Trials. Gotzsche P. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989: 36; 429-432. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.

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  106. Narrative evidence based medicine. Rita Charon, Peter Wyer, The NEBM Working Group. Lancet 2008: 371; 296-297. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Teaching resources. Description: This article discusses the need to combine the data-based emphasis of evidence based medicine with patient experiences, illness narratives, and other sources such as contemporary novels.
  107. No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons. K. J. Rothman. Epidemiology 1990: 1(1); 43-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article argues strongly against the use of Bonferroni adjustments. The author derides the concept of a global null hypothesis and notes the serious increase in Type II errors that occur with Bonferroni adjustments.

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  108. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Biometrics 1994: 50(4); 1088-101. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  109. Operating the smokescreen. Abbasi K British Medical Journal 1998; 317: 7154. [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Excerpt: "Haven't you sold your soul to the devil?" I ask Dr Chris Proctor, the head of science and regulation at British American Tobacco (BAT), one of the major tobacco companies. He smiles back at me. "I don't think I have, and my kids don't think I have," he reassures himself.
  110. Overconfidence as a Cause of Diagnostic Error in Medicine. Eta S. Berner, Mark L. Graber. The American Journal of Medicine 2008: 121(5); S2-S23. [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: DiagnosticTesting. Description: This article proposes that a common source of misdiagnosis errors occur because of overconfidence and suggests strategies for reducing these types of errors.

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  111. Patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review of qualitative research. Munro SA, Lewin SA, Smith HJ, Engel ME, Fretheim A, Volmink J. PLoS Med 2007: 4(7); e238. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  112. Peer-reviewed publication of clinical trials completed for pediatric exclusivity. D. K. Benjamin, Jr., P. B. Smith, M. D. Murphy, R. Roberts, L. Mathis, D. Avant, R. M. Califf, J. S. Li. JAMA 2006: 296(10); 1266-73. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This article examines research conducted under a new FDA rule, pediatric exclusivity, that offers a financial incentive for drug companies to produce research in pediatric populations for drugs that are approved for adults. A large amount of the research conducted under this rule remains unpublished.
  113. Permutation Tests for Joinpoint Regression with Applications to Cancer Rates. Hyune-Ju Kim, Michael P. Fay, Eric J. Feuer, Douglas N. Midthune. Statistics in Medicine 2000: 19(3); 335-351. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article provides an illustrative example of a regression model with an unknown transition points and controls the probability of a Type I error using a Bonferroni correction.
  114. Physicians' reasons for not entering eligible patients in a randomized clinical trial of surgery for breast cancer. KM Taylor, RG Margolese, CL Soskolne. N Engl J Med 1984: 310(21); 1363-7. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: AccrualProblems. Description: This article presents results of a survey asking physicians in a major clinical trial why they were not entering all eligible patients in that trial. The major reasons were concern about how the trial might alter the doctor-patient relationship, difficulty with informed consent, and discomfort with discussions about uncertainty.
  115. A plan to register unpublished studies [news]. Taubes G. Science 1997: 277(5333); 1754. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  116. Positive-Outcome Bias and Other Limitations in the Outcome of Research Abstracts Submitted to a Scientific Meeting. Callaham ML, Wears RL, Weber EJ, Barton C, Young G. JAMA 1998: 280(July 1998); 254-257. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  117. Problems in defining cutoff points of continuous prognostic factors: example of tumor thickness in primary cutaneous melanoma. P. Buettner, C. Garbe, I. Guggenmoos-Holzmann. Journal Clinical Epidemiology 1997: 50(11); 1201-10. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article shows how examining an optimized cutpoint for dichotomizing an independent variable effectively produces multiple hypothesis tests and leads to an inflation of the Type I error rate.
  118. Prospective, randomized evaluation of a personal digital assistant-based research tool in the emergency department. M. L. Rivera, J. Donnelly, B. A. Parry, A. Dinizio, C. L. Johnson, J. A. Kline, C. Kabrhel. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2008: 8(1); 3. [Medline] [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DataManagement. Description: This article studied the use of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for data collection. Compared to a paper form, the PDA was faster and more accurate.
  119. Publication and related bias in meta-analysis: power of statistical tests and prevalence in the literature. Sterne JA, Gavaghan D, Egger M. J Clin Epidemiol 2000: 53(11); 1119-29. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  120. Publication bias and clinical trials. Dickersin K, Chan S, Chalmers TC, Sacks HS, Smith H, Jr. Control Clin Trials 1987: 8(4); 343-53. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  121. Publication bias and meta-analysis. Smith M. Evaluation in Education: An International Review Series 1980: 4; 22-24. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  122. Publication Bias and Research on Passive Smoking: Comparison of Published and Unpublished Studies. Misakian AL, Bero LA. JAMA 1998: 280(3); 250-253. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  123. Publication bias: evidence of delayed publication in a cohort study of clinical research projects. Stern J, Simes R. BMJ 1997: 315(7109); 640-5. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  124. Publication bias in clinical research. Easterbrook P, Berlin J, Gopalan R, Matthews D. Lancet 1991: 337; 867 - 872. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  125. Publication bias in gastroenterological research - a retrospective cohort study based on abstracts submitted to a scientific meeting. Timmer A, Hilsden RJ, Cole J, Hailey D, Sutherland LR. BMC Med Res Methodol 2002: 2(1); 7. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.

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  126. Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London. Hoddinott P, Pill R. British Medical Journal 1999: 318(7175); 30-4. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  127. Qualitative study of patients' perceptions of doctors' advice to quit smoking: implications for opportunistic health promotion. Butler CC, Pill R, Stott NC. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7148); 1878-81. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  128. The Quality of Drug Studies Published in Symposium Proceedings. Cho M, Bero L. Ann Intern Med 1996: 124; 485 - 489. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  129. Quantitative evaluation of multiplicity in epidemiology and public health research. K. J. Ottenbacher. Am J Epidemiol 1998: 147(7); 615-9. [Medline] [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article reviews 173 randomly selected epidemiology articles and demonstrates an increase in the Type I error rare when multiple statistical tests are run without any adjustment.
  130. Quasireplication and the contract of error: lessons from sex ratios, heritabilities and fluctuating asymmetry. A. Richard Palmer. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 2000: (31); 441-80. [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This article promotes the use of funnel plots to identify selective reporting. The authors also encourage the use of true replication in research rather than quasireplication, replicating in a similar, but not identical species and systems.

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  131. Randomized clinical trials: what gets published, and when? Hirsch L. Cmaj 2004: 170(4); 481-3. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  132. Recognising meningococcal disease in primary care: qualitative study of how general practitioners process clinical and contextual information. Granier S, Owen P, Pill R, Jacobson L. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7127); 276-9. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  133. Record linkage research and informed consent: who consents? Nicole Huang , Shu-Fang Shih, Hsing-Yi Chang and Yiing-Jenq Chou. BMC Health Services Research 2007, 7:18 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-18. [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Exclusions in research. Description: Asking patients for permission before linking their data in a survey with health insurance records may be required from an ethical perspective, but it is well known to cause problems with selection bias. Those who agree to the linkage are different than those who refuse. In this study, researchers showed that age, income, literacy level, and other factors were different between patients who provided consent and those who did not provide consent.
  134. Redundant Publication: A Reminder. Kassirer JP, Angell M. New England Journal of Med 1995: 333(7); 449-450. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  135. Registering Clinical Trials. Dickersin K, PhD, MA, Drummond R, MD. Jama 2003: 290(4); 516-23. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  136. Research misconduct: can Australia learn from he UK’s stuttering system? Peter T Wilmshurst. MJA 2007; 186 (12): 662-663. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Fraud in research. Description: Allegations of fraud are always controversial and carry with them the threat of litigation. One article was removed from the BMJ website because of the threat of a lawsuit. It turns out that there is a one year statute of limitations, but that does not apply to a web publication because it is constantly being republished.
  137. Retrospective and prospective identification of unpublished controlled trials: lessons from a survey of obstetricians and pediatricians. Hetherington J, Dickersin K, Chalmers I, Meinert CL. Pediatrics 1989: 84(2); 374-80. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  138. Review of randomised controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine. Tang JL, Zhan SY, Ernst E. Bmj 1999: 319(7203); 160-1. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  139. The risk of bias from omitted research: Evidence must be independently sought and free of economic interests. Garattini S. British Medical Journal 2000: 321; 845-846. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  140. Role of a research ethics committee in follow-up and publication of results. Pich J, Carné X, Arnaiz J-A, Gómez B, Trilla A, Rodés J. The Lancet 2003: 361(9362); [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  141. The role of clinical uncertainty in treatment decisions for diabetic patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. E. A. Kerr, B. J. Zikmund-Fisher, M. L. Klamerus, U. Subramanian, M. M. Hogan, T. P. Hofer. Ann Intern Med 2008: 148(10); 717-27. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DiagnosticTesting. Description: This article examines the process of care for diabetic patients with elevated blood pressure. Clinicians frequently did not intensify the therapy, mostly because of uncertainty about what the true blood pressure would be. (Note: the PDF will not be freely available until December 2008).

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  142. Sample size and power estimation for studies with health related quality of life outcomes: a comparison of four methods using the SF-36. S. J. Walters. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2004: 2; 26. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: SampleSizeJustification. This article proposes three formulas for estimating sample size as well as a bootstrap method and then compares their performance using a quality of life outcome, SF-36.
  143. Scientific quality of original research articles on environmental tobacco smoke. Barnes D, Bero L. Tob Control 1997: 6; 19 - 26. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  144. Selecting the language of the publications included in a meta-analysis: is there a Tower of Babel bias? Gregoire G, Derderian F, Le Lorier J. J Clin Epidemiol 1995: 48(1); 159-63.. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  145. Simpson's Paradox, Lord's Paradox, and Suppression Effects are the same phenomenon - the reversal paradox. YK Tu, D Gunnell, Gilthorpe MS. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2008: 5; 2. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: ModelingIssues. Description: This article provides a nice overview of how associations between two variables can be modified by a third variable.
  146. Some comments on frequently used multiple endpoint adjustment methods in clinical trials. A. J. Sankoh, M. F. Huque, S. D. Dubey. Stat Med 1997: 16(22); 2529-42. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article uses a computer simulation to examine the performance of several adjustments for multiple comparisons.
  147. Survey of claims of no effect in abstracts of Cochrane reviews. Phil Alderson, Iain Chalmers. BMJ 2003: 326(7387); 475. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: CriticalAppraisal. Description: This article notes that claims about "negative" results need to be phrased cautiously. In a review of 989 Cochrane reviews, the authors found 240 poorly worded interpretations of no difference or no effect.
  148. Systematic reviews in health care: Investigating and dealing with publication and other biases in meta-analysis. Sterne JA, Egger M, Smith GD. Bmj 2001: 323(7304); 101-5. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.

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  149. Time to publication of studies was not affected by whether results were positive [letter; comment]. Callaham ML, Weber E, Young G, Wears R, Barton C. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7143); 1536. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  150. Towards a feasible model for shared decision making: focus group study with general practice registrars. Elwyn G, Edwards A, Gwyn R, Grol R. British Medical Journal 1999: 319(7212); 753-756. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  151. Trial Registration at ClinicalTrials.gov between May and October 2005. D. A. Zarin, T. Tse, N. C. Ide. N Engl J Med 2005: 353(26); 2779-87. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: PublicationBias. Description: This article reviews trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after a mandate by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors to refuse publication of unregistered trials. While there was an increase in the number of trials published and the completeness of information provided, the information provided by major drug companies was still largely insufficient to make the registry useful.

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  152. The use of bootstrap methods for analysing Health-Related Quality of Life outcomes (particularly the SF-36). S. J. Walters, M. J. Campbell. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2004: 2; 70. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: UnusualData. The article provids an illustrative example of how to use the bootstrap method.
  153. Use of consensus development to establish national research priorities in critical care. Vella K, Goldfrad C, Rowan K, Bion J, Black N. British Medical Journal 2000: 320(7240); 976-980. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  154. The use of predicted confidence intervals when planning experiments and the misuse of power when interpreting results. Goodman S Annals of Internal Medicine 1994; 121(3): 200-206. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Post hoc power. Description: An early article written for doctors that explains why you should not calculate power after the experiment is completed. These calculations have, according to the authors, an "Alice-in-Wonderland feel" because they are guaranteed to confuse the issue.
  155. Unconventional cancer therapies: What we need is rigorous research, not closed minds. E. Ernst. Chest 2000: 117(2); 307-8. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: CriticalAppraisal. Description: This article notes the popularity of many complementary and alternative medicine techniques, but also warns of the lack of methodological rigor in many evaluations of these techniques. Rather than reject wholesale all of these techniques, these authors suggest that rigorous research is needed.
  156. Underreporting research is scientific misconduct. Chalmers I. Jama 1990: 263(10); 1405-8. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  157. Under-reporting of clinical trials is unethical. Antes G, Chalmers I. The Lancet 2003: 361(9362); [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  158. Understanding the culture of prescribing: qualitative study of general practitioners' and patients' perceptions of antibiotics for sore throats. Butler CC, Rollnick S, Pill R, Maggs-Rapport F, Stott N. British Medical Journal 1998: 317(7159); 637-42. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.
  159. Unpublished Research from a Medical Specialty Meeting: Why Investigators Fail to Publish. Weber EJ, Callaham ML, Wears RL, Barton C, Young G. JAMA 1998: 280(July 1998); 257-259. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.

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  160. Visibility of research: FUTON bias. Wentz R. Lancet 2002: 360(9341); 1256. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  161. Visual inspection with acetic acid as a cervical cancer test: accuracy validated using latent class analysis. Lynne Gaffikin , John A McGrath , Marc Arbyn and Paul D Blumenthal. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007, 7:36 doi:10.1186/1471-2288-7-36. [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Diagnostic testing. Description: Estimating sensitivity and specificity is difficult when you have an imperfect gold standard to compare to the diagnostic test. Typically this causes biases that make sensitivity and specificity too large. This article shows an example of latent class analysis as a solution to this problem.

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  162. What constitutes a "clinical trial"?: A survey of oncology professionals. J. R. Wright, B. Kowaleski, J. Sussman. Trials 2008: 9; 12. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: RandomizationInResearch. Description: This article summarizes ths opinions of 66 oncology researchers on what constitutes a clinical trial. While the original responses were broadly inclusive, the responses became less inclusive when definitions of the Cancer Care Ontario and the Ontario Cancer Research Network groups were provided.
  163. What contributions do languages other than English make on the results of meta-analysis? Moher D, Pham, Klassen T, Schulz K, Berlin J, Jadad A, Liberati A. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2000: 53(9); 964-972.. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  164. What's wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. T. V. Perneger. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7139); 1236-8. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: MultipleComparisons. Description: This article criticizes the use of Bonferroni adjustments, arguing that they create more problems than they solve. The authors criticize the concept of a global null hypothesis and point out the increase in the risk of Type II errors.
  165. Why men with prostate cancer want wider access to prostate specific antigen testing: qualitative study. Chapple A, Ziebland S, Shepperd S, Miller R, Herxheimer A, McPherson A. Bmj 2002: 325(7367); 737. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Qualitative data. Description: This article is an illustrative example of a qualitative research study.

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  166. The XBabelPhish MAGE-ML and XML Translator. D. Maier, F. Wymore, G. Sherlock, C. A. Ball. BMC Bioinformatics 2008: 9(1); 28. [Medline] [Abstract] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: DataMining. Description: This article describes a program to translate among varying microarray data files using the MAGWE-ML standard.

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  167. The "3T's" road map to transform US health care: the "how" of high-quality care. D. Dougherty, P. H. Conway. JAMA 2008: 299(19); 2319-21. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: QualityControl. Description: This article outlines the three major translational steps needed to apply research to actual clinical care.

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Articles that serve as illustrative examples (incomplete)

Individual articles needing a description or excerpt

  1. Commentary: Searching for Trials for Systematic Reviews: What Difference Does it Make? Clarke M. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002: 31(1); 123-4. This article is cited in Category: Publication bias.
  2. Conflict of interest and the American Journal of Bioethics. K. A. Carroll, G. McGee. American Journal of Bioethics 2002: 2(3); 1-2. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: ConflictOfInterest. Description: Coming soon!

Individual articles not yet in the proper format

  1. Conflict-of-interest policies for investigators in clinical trials. Lo B, Wolf LE, Berkeley A. N Engl J Med 2000: 343(22); 1616-20. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  2. Conflict of interest policies in science and medical journals: editorial practices and author disclosures. Krimsky S, Rothenberg LS. Sci Eng Ethics 2001: 7(2); 205-18. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  3. Declaring financial competing interests: survey of five general medical journals. Hussain A, Smith R. British Medical Journal 2001: 323(7307); 263-4. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  4. Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Leviton A, Reed R, Peresie H, Maher C, Barrett P. N Engl J Med 1979: 300(13); 689-95. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  5. Disclosure and Disinterest. Kennedy D. Science Magazine 2004: 303(5654); 15. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  6. Disclosure policies for gifts from industry to academic faculty. Bero LA. Jama 1998: 279(13); 1031-2. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  7. Disclosure of Authors' Conflicts of Interest: A Follow-up. Angell M, Utiger R, Wood A. N Engl J Med 2000: 342; 586 - 587. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  8. Does the type of competing interest statement affect readers' perceptions of the credibility of research? Randomised trial. Schroter S, Morris J, Chaudhry S, Smith R, Barratt H. Bmj 2004: 328(7442); 742-3. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  9. Economic incentives in clinical investigation. Relman AS. N Engl J Med 1989: 320(14); 933-4. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  10. Editorials and Conflicts of Interest. Angell M, Kassirer JP. N Engl J Med 1996: 335(14); 1055-1056. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  11. Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents. Jureidini JN, Doecke CJ, Mansfield PR, Haby MM, Menkes DB, Tonkin AL. Bmj 2004: 328(7444); 879-83. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  12. Environmental lead and children's intelligence. Needleman HL. BMJ 1995: 310(6991); 1408a-. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  13. Ethics issues in academic-industry relationships in the life sciences: the continuing debate. Blumenthal D. Acad Med 1996: 71(12); 1291-6. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  14. Evaluation of conflict of interest in economic analyses of new drugs used in oncology. Friedberg M, Saffran B, Stinson T. JAMA 1999: 282; 1453 - 1457. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  15. Financial Associations of Authors. Drazen JM, Curfman GD. N Engl J Med 2002: 346(24); 1901-1902. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  16. Financial interest and its disclosure in scientific publications. Krimsky S, Rothenberg LS. Jama 1998: 280(3); 225-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  17. Financial interests of authors in scientific journals: a pilot study of 14 publications. Krimsky S, Rothenberg LS, Stott P, Kyle G. Sci Eng Ethics 1996: 2(4); 395-410. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  18. Financial Conflict-of-Interest Policies in Clinical Research: Issues for Clinical Investigators. Boyd EA, Cho MK, Bero LA. Acad Med 2003: 78(8); 769-74. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  19. Funding source, trial outcome and reporting quality: are they related? Results of a pilot study. Clifford T, Barrowman N, Moher D. BMC Health Services Research 2002: 2(1); 18. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  20. Get-the-lead-out guru challenged. Palca J. Science 1991: 253(5022); 842-4. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  21. How can research ethics committees protect patients better? Garattini S, Bertele V, Bassi LL. BMJ 2003: 326(7400); 1199-1201. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  22. Influences on the Quality of Published Drug Studies. Bero L, Rennie D. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1996: 12; 209 - 237. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  23. Institutions, Contracts, and Academic Freedom. Drazen JM. N Engl J Med 2002: 347(17); 1362-1363. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  24. Lung cancer and passive smoking. Turning over the wrong stone. Johnson KC, Repace J. British Medical Journal 2000: 321(7270); 1221; discussion 1222-3. [Medline] [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  25. National office of drug safety is needed, experts say in JAMA. Cook D. JAMA 1993: 269(21); 2749-53. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  26. New England Journal loosens its rules on conflict of interest. Gottlieb S. BMJ 2002: 324; 1474. [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  27. Nonfinancial conflicts of interest in research. Levinsky NG. N Engl J Med 2002: 347(10); 759-61. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  28. Of whistleblowers, investigators, and judges. Scarr S, Ernhart CB. Ethics Behav 1993: 3(2); 199-206. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  29. On being a whistleblower: the Needleman case. Ernhart CB, Scarr S, Geneson DF. Ethics Behav 1993: 3(1); 73-93. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  30. Operating the smokescreen. Unknown A. British Medical Journal 1998: 317; 7154. [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  31. Participation of life-science faculty in research relationships with industry. Blumenthal D, Campbell EG, Causino N, Louis KS. N Engl J Med 1996: 335(23); 1734-9. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  32. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O. BMJ 2003: 326(7400); 1167-1170. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  33. Policies on faculty conflicts of interest at US universities. Cho MK, Shohara R, Schissel A, Rennie D. Jama 2000: 284(17); 2203-8. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  34. Potential solutions to the problem of conducting systematic reviews of new health technologies. Moher D, Schachter HM. Cmaj 2002: 166(13); 1674-5. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  35. Print media coverage of research on passive smoking. Kennedy GE, Bero LA. Tobacco Control 1999: 8(3); 254-260. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  36. Problem is greater than editorial indicates. Kristiansen IS. BMJ 2003: 326(7394); 883-. [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  37. The publication of sponsored symposiums in medical journals. Bero LA, Galbraith A, Rennie D. N Engl J Med 1992: 327(16); 1135-40. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  38. The Quality of Drug Studies Published in Symposium Proceedings. Cho M, Bero L. Ann Intern Med 1996: 124; 485 - 489. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  39. Reanalysis of epidemiological evidence on lung cancer and passive smoking. Copas JB. British Medical Journal 2000: 320(7232); 417-418. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  40. Relationships between academic institutions and industry in the life sciences--an industry survey. Blumenthal D, Causino N, Campbell E, Louis KS. N Engl J Med 1996: 334(6); 368-73. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  41. Reference bias in reports of drug trials. Gotzsche PC. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987: 295(6599); 654-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  42. Relationships between authors of clinical practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. Choudhry NK, Stelfox HT, Detsky AS. Jama 2002: 287(5); 612-7. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  43. Reply to Ernhart, Scarr, and Geneson. Needleman HL. Ethics Behav 1993: 3(1); 95-101. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  44. A reply to Scarr and Ernhart. Needleman HL. Pediatrics 1993: 91(2); 519-21. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  45. Review of the quality of studies on the economic effects of smoke-free policies on the hospitality industry. Scollo M, Lal A, Hyland A, Glantz S. BMJ Tob Control 2003: 12(1); 13-20. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  46. Salem comes to the National Institutes of Health: notes from inside the crucible of scientific integrity. Needleman HL. Pediatrics 1992: 90(6); 977-81. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  47. Scientific journals and their authors' financial interests: a pilot study. Krimsky S, Rothenberg LS, Stott P, Kyle G. Psychother Psychosom 1998: 67(4-5); 194-201. [Medline] [PDF]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  48. Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research: a systematic review. Bekelman JE, Li Y, Gross CP. Jama 2003: 289(4); 454-65. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  49. Source of funding and outcome of clinical trials. Davidson R. J Gen Intern Med 1986: 1; 155 - 158. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  50. Sponsorship, Authorship and Accountability. Davidoff F, DeAngelis C, Drazen J, Hoey J, Hojgaard L, Horton R, Kotzin S, Nicholls M, Nylenna M. MJA 2001: 175(6); 294-296. [Full text]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  51. A Study of Manufacturer-Supported Trials of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the Treatment of Arthritis. Rochon P, Gurwitz J, Simms R, Fortin P, Felson D, Minaker K, Chalmers T. Arch Intern Med 1994: 154; 157 - 163. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  52. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on treatment of asthma: critical evaluation. Jadad AR, Moher M, Browman GP, Booker L, Sigouin C, Fuentes M, Stevens R. Bmj 2000: 320(7234); 537-40. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  53. Tobacco Industry Efforts to Defeat the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Indoor Air Quality Rule. Bryan-Jones K, Bero LA. Am J Public Health 2003: 93(4); 585-592. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  54. Tobacco industry research: collaboration, not confrontation, is the best approach. Proctor C. British Medical Journal 1998: 317(?); 333-39. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  55. The uncertainty principle and industry-sponsored research. Djulbegovic B, Lacevic M, Cantor A, Fields KK, Bennett CL, Adams JR, Kuderer NM, Lyman GH. Lancet 2000: 356(9230); 635-8. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  56. Uneasy Alliance - Clinical Investigators and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Bodenheimer T. N Engl J Med 2000: 342(20); 1539 - 1544. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  57. What scientists funded by the tobacco industry believe about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Cummings KM, Sciandra R, Gingrass A, Davis R. Am J Public Health 1991: 81(7); 894-6. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  58. When commitments and interests conflict. "There's probably no greater conflict of interest than an NIH grant". Hammerschmidt DE. J Lab Clin Med 1995: 126(1); 5-6. [Medline]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  59. Why Review Articles on the Health Effects of Passive Smoking Reach Different Conclusions. Barnes DE, Bero LA. JAMA 1998: 279(19); 1566-1570. [Medline] [Abstract]. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  60. Childhood Lead Poisoning and Tainted Science. Schoen EJ. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon. Accessed on 2003-08-13. www.roizen.com/ron/schoen.html
  61. Doctors Without Borders. Why you can't trust medical journals anymore.. Brownlee S. Accessed on 2004-04-14. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0404.brownlee.html
  62. A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers. Tobacco Industry Research Committee. Accessed on 2003-06-18. www.pmdocs.com/getimg.asp?pgno=0&start=0&bool=Frank%20Statement&docid=2015002376. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon.
  63. Guidelines for Clinical Investigator Involvement in Industry-sponsored Clinical Trials [pdf]. Panacek EA, Lewis RJ, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon. Accessed on 2003-05-08. www.saem.org/download/edward.pdf
  64. Integrity in Science Award Is Neither. Milloy S, Fox News. Accessed on 2003-07-11. This article is cited in Category: Conflict of interest. Description: coming soon. www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,91600,00.html
  65. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Scheme. Current Controlled Trials. Accessed on 2004-03-17. www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/introduction.asp
  66. Objectivity in Research. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Accessed on 2003-08-15. grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not95-179.html
  67. When statistics provide unsatisfying answers: revisiting the breast self-examination controversy. Lerner BH. Cmaj 2002: 166(2); 199-201. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  68. Topic: SystematicOverviews
  69. How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study. Egger M, Jüni P, Bartlett C, Holenstein F, Sterne J. Accessed on 2003-02-13. www.ncchta.org/execsumm/summ701.htm
  70. The Pharmaceutical Industry. Don't Talk. American Medical Student Association. Accessed on 2003-05-08. www.amsa.org/hp/conflict.cfm
  71. Mindstretcher - Checking out systematic reviews. Bandolier. Accessed on 2004-07-22. www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band110/b110-3.html
  72. Mindstretcher - does unpublished information make a difference?. Bandolier. Accessed on 2004-07-22. www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band110/b110-4.html
  73. Can We Trust the Clinical Trial? [pdf]. Beerman B. Accessed on 2004-01-14. member.nifty.ne.jp/saio/Beermann-JSPE-2003.pdf
  74. Positive-outcome bias (publication bias). Carroll RT. Accessed on 2003-04-15. www.skepdic.com/posoutbias.html
  75. Row Over Breast Cancer Screening Shows that Scientists Bring "Some Subjectivity Into Their Work. Mayor S. British Medical Journal 2001: 323(7319); 956. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  76. Home Page of Andreas Buja. Buja A. Accessed on 2003-01-02. This page has some good papers on multivariate approaches, especially "bagging." www.research.att.com/~andreas/
  77. Perl Documentation. Ramirez C. Accessed on 2003-01-17. Perl is a popular language in Bioinformatics. One of it's greatest strengths is the ability to sort and filter large amounts of text information. www.perldoc.com/
  78. PIDEX: a Statistical Approach for Screening Differentially Expressed Genes Using Microarrays Analysis. Ge N, Huang F, Shaw P, Wu CFJ. Accessed on 2003-04-08. www.stat.lsa.umich.edu/~jeffwu/publication/pidex.pdf
  79. Supervised Learning from Micro-Array Data. Hastie T. Accessed on 2003-04-08. www.insightful.com/events/2001uc/hastie.pdf
  80. Rosenthal NEJM 338, 122 (1998) "In Search of Perverse Polymorphisms"

  81. DNA microarrays in medical practice. Aitman TJ. British Medical Journal 2001: 323(7313); 611-5. [Full text] [PDF]
  82. A systematic statistical linear modeling approach to oligonucleotide array experiments. Chu TM, Weir B, Wolfinger R. Math Bioscience 2002: 176(1); 35-51. [PDF]
  83. Computational methods for the identification of differential and coordinated gene expression. Claverie JM. Hum Mol Genet 1999: 8(10); 1821-32. [PDF]
  84. Improved statistical inference from DNA microarray data using analysis of variance and a Bayesian statistical framework. Analysis of global gene expression in Escherichia coli K12. Long AD, Mangalam HJ, Chan BY, Tolleri L, Hatfield GW, Baldi P. J Biol Chem 2001: 276(23); 19937-44. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  85. Empirical characterization of the expression ratio noise structure in high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Naef F, Hacker CR, Patil N, Magnasco M. Genome Biol 2002: 3(4); RESEARCH0018. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  86. Prediction of central nervous system embryonal tumour outcome based on gene expression. Pomeroy SL, Tamayo P, Gaasenbeek M, Sturla LM, Angelo M, McLaughlin ME, Kim JYE, Goumnerova LC, Black PM. Nature 2002: 415436-442. [Abstract]
  87. Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response. Tusher VG, Tibshirani R, Chu G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001: 98(9); 5116-21. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  88. A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer. van de Vijver MJ, He YD, van't Veer LJ, Dai H, Hart AA, Voskuil DW, Schreiber GJ, Peterse JL, Roberts C, Marton MJ, Parrish M, Atsma D, Witteveen A, Glas A, Delahaye L, van der Velde T, Bartelink H, Rodenhuis S, Rutgers ET, Friend SH, Bernards R. N Engl J Med 2002: 347(25); 1999-2009.  [Abstract]
  89. Computational method for reducing variance with Affymetrix microarrays. Welle S, Brooks AI, Thornton CA. BMC Bioinformatics 2002: 3(1); 23. [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  90. Match-Only Integral Distribution (MOID) Algorithm for high-density oligonucleotide array analysis. Zhou Y, Abagyan R. BMC Bioinformatics 2002: 3(1); 3. [Abstract] [Full text]
  91. Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling. Alizadeh AA, Eisen MB, Davis RE, Ma C, Lossos IS, Rosenwald A, Boldrick JC, Sabet H, Tran T, Yu X, Powell JI, Yang L, Marti GE, Moore T, Hudson J, Jr., Lu L, Lewis DB, Tibshirani R, Sherlock G, Chan WC, Greiner TC, Weisenburger DD, Armitage JO, Warnke R, Levy R, Wilson W, Grever MR, Byrd JC, Botstein D, Brown PO, Staudt LM. Nature 2000: 403(6769); 503-11. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  92. Topic: Bioconductor?microarray
  93. BioConductor: open source software for bioinformatics. Bates D, Carey V, Dettling M, Dudoit S, Ellis B, Gautier L, Gentleman R, Gentry J, Hornik K, Hothorn T, Huber W, Iacus S, Irizarry R, Leisch F, Maechler M, Rossini A, Sawitzki G, Tierney L, Yang JYH, Zhang JJ. Accessed on 2003-04-10. www.bioconductor.org/
  94. The Comprehensive R Archive Network. Leisch F. Accessed on 2003-04-10. cran.r-project.org/
  95. The R Project for Statistical Computing. Leisch F, Gentleman R, Ihaka R. Accessed on 2003-04-10. www.r-project.org/
  96. The Spot Users Guide. Yang J. Accessed on 2004-05-22. www.cmis.csiro.au/IAP/Spot/spotmanual.htm
  97. Acuity from Axon Instruments,
  98. DecisionSite Statistics from Spotfire Corporation,
  99. Gene Chip Operating Software from Affymetrix Corporation,
  100. GeneSight from BioDiscovery,
  101. GeneSpring  from Silicon Genetics,
  102. Microarray Solution from SAS Corporation, and
  103. S+ ArrayAnalyzer from Insightful Corporation.
  104. Pathways Analysis from Ingenuity Systems,
  105. Jaguar Image Analysis

  106. http://www.biocompare.com/matrix/2975/Microarray-Analysis-Software.html

  107. http://www.hgmp.mrc.ac.uk/Research/Microarray/Data_Analysis/tools.jsp

  108. http://ihome.cuhk.edu.hk/~b400559/arraysoft.html

  109. http://www.statsci.org/micrarra/annotate.html
  110. http://www.cato.com/biotech/bio-software.html#Informatics
  111. http://www.msri.org/publications/ln/hosted/nas/2001/speed/1/index.html
  112. Topic diagnostic tests
  113. Evaluating Medical Tests: Objective and Quantitative Guidelines. Helena Chmura Kraemer (1992) Sage Publications: Newbury Park, CA.
  114. Using the Result. Bandolier. Accessed on 2002-12-16. "Bandolier 27 carried a report on an article about spectrum bias in diagnostic tests (the propensity of tests to change in sensitivity or specificity depending upon populations studied). It also suggested that, since sensitivity and specificity are less than user-friendly, what we needed was a simpler way of doing things - so we suggested that a number-needed-to-diagnose (NND) might be a useful invention." www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band28/b28-5.html
  115. Diagnosing Anaemia. Bandolier. Accessed on 2002-10-01. "Bandolier is always on the lookout for good papers which help in making a diagnosis. A number of papers on the diagnosis of anaemia have come our way this month. Interestingly, they include the issues of clinical evaluation, and of laboratory diagnosis." www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band45/b45-6.html
  116. Diagnosing Prosthetic Joint Infection. Bandolier. www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band63/b63-5.html
  117. Signs and Symptoms Predict Thyroid Disease. Bandolier, Bandolier. Accessed on 2002-October. www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band46/b46-5.html
  118. Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests. Rapid-diagnostic.org, Rapid-diagnostic.org. Accessed on 2002-October. www.rapid-diagnostics.org/accuracy
  119. Effect of false-positive mammograms on interval breast cancer screening in a health maintenance organization. M. L. Burman, S. H. Taplin, D. F. Herta and J. G. Elmore. Annals of Internal Medicine 1999: 131(1); 1-6.
  120. Percentage of free prostate-specific antigen in sera predicts aggressiveness of prostate cancer a decade before diagnosis. H. B. Carter, A. W. Partin, A. A. Luderer, E. J. Metter, P. Landis, D. W. Chan, J. L. Fozard and J. D. Pearson. Urology 1997: 49(3); 379-84.
  121. Sensitivity and specificity of QTc dispersion for identification of risk of cardiac death in patients with peripheral vascular disease. D. Darbar, J. Luck, N. Davidson, T. Pringle, G. Main, G. McNeill and A. D. Struthers. British Medical Journal 1996: 312(7035); 874-8; discussion 878-9.
  122. Evidence-based diagnostic radiology. A. K. Dixon. Lancet 1997: 350(9076); 509-12. The paper distinguishes between technical performance, diagnostic performance, diagnostic impact, therapeutic impact, and impact on health.
  123. Problems in using the hospital anxiety and depression scale for screening patients in general practice. A. C. Dowell and L. A. Biran. Br J Gen Pract 1990: 40(330); 27-8. No gold standard. Some pragmatic advice about screening
  124. The ratio of free to total serum prostate specific antigen and its use in differential diagnosis of prostate carcinoma in Japan. S. Egawa, S. Soh, M. Ohori, T. Uchida, K. Gohji, A. Fujii, S. Kuwao and K. Koshiba. Cancer 1997: 79(1); 90-8. This article has an interesting comparison of ROC curves. For a cutpoint of 17%, sn=92%, sp=72%.
  125. Systematic 5 region prostate biopsy is superior to sextant method for diagnosing carcinoma of the prostate. L. A. Eskew, R. L. Bare and D. L. McCullough. J Urol 1997: 157(1); 199-202; discussion 202-3. This article uses diagnostic yield instead of sensitivity/specificity.
  126. How to read a paper. Papers that report diagnostic or screening tests. T. Greenhalgh. Bmj 1997: 315(7107); 540-3.
  127. Sensitivity and specificity of photography and direct ophthalmoscopy in screening for sight threatening eye disease: the Liverpool Diabetic Eye Study. S. P. Harding, D. M. Broadbent, C. Neoh, M. C. White and J. Vora. Bmj 1995: 311(7013); 1131-5.
  128. Spectrum bias in the evaluation of diagnostic tests: lessons from the rapid dipstick test for urinary tract infection. M. S. Lachs, I. Nachamkin, P. H. Edelstein, J. Goldman, A. R. Feinstein and J. S. Schwartz. Ann Intern Med 1992: 117(2); 135-40. A diagnostic test will usually perform more effectively in patients who have clear signs of illness and will preform less effectively in borderline patients. This is reflected in values of sensitivity and specificity that change depending on who is evaluated. If the patients being evaluated are similar to the patients you see in your practice, this is not a problem. But often, patients with more extreme symptoms are preferentially recruited into research studies. This leads to spectrum bias which can often overstate the effectiveness of a diagnostic test.
  129. When statistics provide unsatisfying answers: revisiting the breast self-examination controversy. B. H. Lerner. Cmaj 2002: 166(2); 199-201.
  130. Empirical evidence of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests. JG Lijmer, BW Mol, S Heisterkamp, GJ Bonsel, MH Prins, JH van der Meulen and PM Bossuyt. JAMA 1999: 282(11); 1061-1066.
  131. Colonoscopic miss rates of adenomas determined by back-to-back colonoscopies. D. K. Rex, C. S. Cutler, G. T. Lemmel, E. Y. Rahmani, D. W. Clark, D. J. Helper, G. A. Lehman and D. G. Mark. Gastroenterology 1997: 112(1); 24-8. A second pass frequently catches additional adenomas.
  132. Do Japanese statistics on gastric carcinoma need to be revised?. J. Sakamoto and M. Yasue. Lancet 1997: 349(9067); 1711-2. Discusses Schlemper et al reference.
  133. Prospective cohort study of routine use of risk assessment scales for prediction of pressure ulcers. L. Schoonhoven, J. R. Haalboom, M. T. Bousema, A. Algra, D. E. Grobbee, M. H. Grypdonck and E. Buskens. Bmj 2002: 325(7368); 797.
  134. The influence of prostate volume on the ratio of free to total prostate specific antigen in serum of patients with prostate carcinoma and benign prostate hyperplasia. C. Stephan, M. Lein, K. Jung, D. Schnorr and S. A. Loening. Cancer 1997: 79(1); 104-9. Excellent example comparing ROC curves
  135. Sonographic measurement of uterine cervix at 18-22 weeks' gestation and the risk of preterm delivery. P Taipale and V Hiilesmaa. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998: 92(6); 902-07.
  136. When can a risk factor be used as a worthwhile screening test?. N J Wald, AK Hackshaw and CD Frost. British Medical Journal 1999: 319(7224); 1562-1565.
  137. Surgery and the reduction of mortality from prostate cancer. P. C. Walsh. N Engl J Med 2002: 347(11); 839-40.
  138. Rectal bleeding and colorectal cancer in general practice: diagnostic study. H. Wauters, V. Van Casteren and F. Buntinx. British Medical Journal 2000: 321(7267); 998-9.
  139. Case-control studies of the efficacy of screening tests designed to prevent the incidence of cancer. N. S. Weiss. Am J Epidemiol 1999: 149(1); 1-4.
  140. Mammography and the politics of randomised controlled trials. J. Wells. Bmj 1998: 317(7167); p1224-9.
  141. The child with a non-blanching rash: how likely is meningococcal disease?. L. C. Wells, J. C. Smith, V. C. Weston, J. Collier and N. Rutter. Arch 2001: 85(3); p218-22.
  142. Probabilistic analysis of global performances of diagnostic tests: interpreting the lorenz curve-based summary measures. L Wen-Chung. Stats in Medicine 1999: 18(4); 455-71.
  143. Does this patient have a mole or a melanoma?. J. D. Whited and J. M. Grichnik. Jama 1998: 279(9); p696-701.
  144. Diagnosing fever by touch: observational study. K. Whybrew, M. Murray and C. Morley. Bmj 1998: 317(7154); 321.
  145. Future of preschool vision screening: Conclusions for or against services are invalid without appropriate research evidence [a compilation of letters RE: Future of preschool vision screening]. C Williams and et al. BMJ 1998: 316(7135); 937-940.
  146. Colorectal cancer screening: Now is the time. Sidney J Winawer and Ann G Zauber. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2000: 163(5); 543-544.
  147. The validity of urine examination for urinary tract infections in daily practice. R. A. Winkens, P. Leffers, T. A. Trienekens and E. E. Stobberingh. Fam Pract 1995: 12(3); 290-3.
  148. Screening of Infants and Mortality Due to Neuroblastoma. William G. Woods, Ru-Nie Gao, Jonathan J. Shuster, Leslie L. Robison, Mark Bernstein, Sheila Weitzman, Greta Bunin, Isra Levy, Josee Brossard, Geoffrey Dougherty, Mendel Tuchman and Bernard Lemieux. N Engl J Med 2002: 346(14); 1041-1046.
  149. Screening for prostate cancer: the roles of science, policy, and opinion in determining what is best for patients. S. H. Woolf and S. F. Rothemich. Annu Rev Med 1999: 50207-21.
  150. Review: 4 clinical tests most accurately predict poor outcome in patients with anoxic-ischemic coma. EG Zandbergen. ACP Journal Club 1999: 131(1); 22.
  151. Comparing accuracies of two screening tests in a two-phase study for dementia. Xiao-Hua Zhou. Appl. Statist. 1998: 47(1); 135-47.
  152. Comparing diagnostic tests: a simple graphic using likelihood ratios. B. J. Biggerstaff. Statistics in Medicine 2000: 19(5); 649-63. (It is possible for one test to have superior sensitivity and specificity and yet perform poorly in practice. The application of likelihood ratios to the ROC curve can show when this will occur.) [Medline]
  153. Mathematical tools for demonstrating the clinical usefulness of biochemical markers. J. C. Boyd. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1997: 22746-63.
  154. Slopes of a receiver operating characteristic curve and likelihood ratios for a diagnostic test. BCK Choi. AJE 1998: 148(11); 1127-32.
  155. Inferences for likelihood ratios in the absence of a "gold standard". L Joseph and TW Gyorkos. Medical Decision Making 1996: 16(4); 412-17.
  156. Why we need large, simple studies of the clinical examination: the problem and a proposed solution. CARE-COAD1 group. Clinical Assessment of the Reliability of the Examination-Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease Group. F. A. McAlister, S. E. Straus and D. L. Sackett. Lancet 1999: 354(9191); 1721-4. (This study emphasizes the history and physical exam and shows how important it is to design good research studies for these signs.) [Medline]
  157. Iron deficiency anemia in the elderly: the diagnostic process. C. Patterson, G. H. Guyatt, J. Singer, M. Ali and I. Turpie. Cmaj 1991: 144(4); 435-40. (This study shows how a history and physical exam can change pre-test probabilities into post-test probabilities.)[Medline]
  158. The likelihood ratio. An improved measure for reporting and evaluating diagnostic test results. K. L. Radack, G. Rouan and J. Hedges. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1986: 110(8); 689-93. (A very good overview article. It shows how to calculate and how to use likelihood ratios. It also emphasizes that sensitivity and specificity are not necessarily constant over the range of data. It also criticizes the dichotomization that is necessary to compute sensitivity and specificity.)
  159. The relation of conjunctival pallor to the presence of anemia. T. N. Sheth, N. K. Choudhry, M. Bowes and A. S. Detsky. J Gen Intern Med 1997: 12(2); 102-6. (Good example of using a clinical examination sign in an objective way. When conjunctival pallor is present, the LR is 4.5, when it is borerline, the LR is 1.8 and when it is absent, the LR is 0.61.)[Medline]
  160. Likelihood ratios with confidence: sample size estimation for diagnostic test studies. D. L. Simel, G. P. Samsa and D. B. Matchar. J Clin Epidemiol 1991: 44(8); 763-70.
  161. The accuracy of patient history, wheezing, and laryngeal measurements in diagnosing obstructive airway disease. CARE-COAD1 Group. Clinical Assessment of the Reliability of the Examination-Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease. S. E. Straus, F. A. McAlister, D. L. Sackett and J. J. Deeks. Jama 2000: 283(14); 1853-7.
  162. Can the initial clinical assessment of thyroid function be improved? G. H. White and R. N. Walmsley. Lancet 1978: 2(8096); 933-5. (If the clinical exam is done well, lab tests may be irrelevant.) [Medline]
  163. Likelihood ratios to determine 'does this patient have appendicitis?': comment and clarification [letter; comment]. K. Witt, M. Makela and O. Olsen. Jama 1997: 278(10); 819; discussion 819-20.
  164. Topic: WritingResearchPapers
  165. Medical Related Clip Art. Peachey B. Accessed on 2003-10-13. webclipart.about.com/msub35aa.htm
  166. HONmedia - Medical images. Health on the Net Foundation. Accessed on 2003-10-13. www.hon.ch/HONmedia/
  167. Copyright Fair Use. U.S. Copyright Office. Accessed on 2005-04-15. www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html
  168. 10 Big Myths about copyright explained. Templeton B. Accessed on 2005-04-15. www.templetons.com/brad/copymyths.html
  169. Should you Copyright it? Borchard W. The Industrial Physicist 2000; 31-33.
  170. Free Internet Access to Traditional Journals. Walker TJ. American Scientist 1998: 86(5)? [Abstract] [Full text]
  171. Public Library of Science. Science PLo. Accessed on 2002-12-16. www.publicLibraryofscience.org/
  172. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods. Sawilowsky S, Zumbo BD. Accessed on 2003-09-18. tbf.coe.wayne.edu/jmasm/
  173. Paying for bmj.com. Delamothe T, Smith R. BMJ 2003: 327(7409); 241-242. [Full text] [PDF]
  174. The BMJ's website scales up. Delamothe T, Smith R. Bmj 1998: 316(7138); 1109-10. [Medline] [Full text]
  175. Pleasing both authors and readers. A combination of short print articles and longer electronic ones may help us do this. Delamothe T, Mullner M, Smith R. Bmj 1999: 318(7188); 888-9. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  176. Electronic preprints: what should the BMJ do? [editorial]. Delamothe T. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7134); 794-5.
  177. Medical research, the media and open access. CMAJ. Cmaj 2004: 170(9); 1365, 1367. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  178. PubMed Central: signing on. CMAJ. Cmaj 2000: 162(4); 481, 483. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  179. Freedom of information? Bingham CM, Van Der Weyden MB. Med J Aust 2002: 177(11-12); 581. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  180. Who should own scientific papers? Bachrach S, Berry RS, Blume M, von Foerster T, Fowler A, Ginsparg P, Heller S, Kestner N, Odlyzko A, Okerson A, Wigington R, Moffat A. Science 1998: 281(5382); 1459-60. [Medline] [Full text]
  181. Pediatric electronic pages: looking back and looking ahead. Anderson K, Lucey JF. Pediatrics 1998: 102(1 Pt 1); 124-8. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  182. English-Russian Vocabulary Quizzes. Mitrevski G, The Internet TESL Journal. Accessed on 2003-09-10. iteslj.org/v/r/
  183. Style Crosswords. Washington Post. Accessed on 2003-08-28. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/crosswords/sunday/front.htm
  184. Tongue Twisters. HumourHub. Accessed on 2003-09-15. www.scatty.com/jokes/other/tongue_twisters/
  185. Data "Is". Vanderburg G, O'Reilly Developer Weblogs. Accessed on 2003-11-26. www.oreillynet.com/pub/wlg/2527
  186. Topic: Grants
  187. All About Grants Tutorials. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Accessed on 2003-04-14. www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/grants/default.htm
  188. Grants & Funding Opportunities. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Accessed on 2003-04-14. grants1.nih.gov/grants/
  189. NIH Home Page. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Accessed on 2003-04-14. www.nih.gov
  190. Proposals That Work Third Edition: A Guide for Planning Dissertations and Grant Proposals. Locke LF, Spirduso WW, Silverman SJ (1993) Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  191. Writing Grant Proposals That Win. Hale PD, Jr. (1997) Alexandria, Virginia: Capital Publications Inc.
  192. Experimental study design and grant writing in eight steps and 28 questions. Bordage G, Dawson B. Med Educ 2003: 37(4); 376-85. [Medline]
  193. Effect of open peer review on quality of reviews and on reviewers' recommendations: a randomised trial. van Rooyen S, Godlee F, Evans S, Black N, Smith R. Bmj 1999: 318(7175); 23-7.
  194. Invited Commentary: What Can We Infer from Author Order in Epidemiology? Savitz DA. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999: 149(5); 401-403.
  195. Reproducibility of peer review in clinical neuroscience. Is agreement between reviewers any greater than would be expected by chance alone? Rothwell PM, Martyn CN. Brain 2000: 123(Pt 9); 1964-9.
  196. Evaluating the quality of articles published in journal supplements compared with the quality of those published in the parent journal. Rochon PA, Gurwitz JH, Cheung CM, Hayes JA, Chalmers TC. Jama 1994: 272(2); 108-13. [Medline]
  197. Peer-reviewed practices of psychological journals: the fate of accepted published articles, submitted again. Peters DP, Ceci SJ. Behav. Brain Sci 1982: 5; 187-195.
  198. Inter-rater agreement in the scoring of abstracts submitted to a primary care research conference. Montgomery AA, Graham A, Evans PH, Fahey T. BMC Health Serv Res 2002: 2(1); 8. [Medline] [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF]
  199. Publication prejudices: an experimental study of confirmatory bias in the peer review system. Mahoney MJ. Cogn. Ther. Res. 1977: 1; 161-175.
  200. Something Rotten at the Core of Science?. Horrobin DF. Accessed on 2004-09-01. www.digibio.com/archive/SomethingRotten.htm
  201. Something Rotten at the Core of Science?. Horrobin DF. Accessed on 2003-08-27. news.bmn.com/hmsbeagle/95/viewpts/op_ed
  202. The philosophical basis of peer review and the suppression of innovation. Horrobin DF. Jama 1990: 263(10); 1438-41. [Medline]
  203. Manuscript quality before and after peer review and editing at Annals of Internal Medicine. Goodman S. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994: 121(1); 11-21. [Medline]
  204. What makes a good reviewer of manuscripts? [editorial]. Goldbeck-Wood S. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7125); 86.
  205. Resources for Medical Editors. Editors WAoM. Accessed on 2003-01-07. www.wame.org/rsources.htm
  206. The reliability of peer review for manuscript and grant submissions: a cross-diciplinary investigation. Cicchetti D. Behav. Brain Sci 1991: 14; 119-186.
  207. Babelfish Translation. AltaVista. Accessed on 2002-10-23. babelfish.altavista.com/
  208. Statistically Speaking A Dictionary of Quotations. Gaither CC, E C-GA (1996) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing.
  209. Mathematically Speaking A Dictionary of Quotations. Gaither CC, Cavazos-Gaither AE (1998) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing.
  210. Welcome to CyberSAC, a Self-Access Center. Pilkinton-Pihko D, Language and Communication Centre, Helsinki University of Technology. Accessed on 2003-08-27. www.hut.fi/~dpihko/cyberSAC/cybersac.htm
  211. Merriam-Webster OnLine. Merriam-Webster. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.m-w.com/mw/netdict.htm
  212. Refdesk: reference, facts, news, free and family friendly. Drudge B. Accessed on 2003-04-23. www.refdesk.com/
  213. Newspapers US and Worldwide. Drudge B. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.refdesk.com/paper.html
  214. Bullfighter -- Stripping The Bull Out Of Business. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. Accessed on 2003-06-16. www.dc.com/bullfighter/
  215. Maths Thesaurus. Cambridge Uo. Accessed on 2002-10-03. thesaurus.maths.org/
  216. Handbook of Current Medical Abbreviations. Unknown A (1997) Philadelphia: The Charles Press.
  217. Webster's New Complete Medical Dictionary. Unknown A (1995) New York: Merriam-Webster.
  218. PowerPoint Remix. Swartz A. Accessed on 2004-02-10. www.aaronsw.com/weblog/000931
  219. Module 3 - Writing Effective Learning Objectives. Smith DH, Domingez S, Fernandez F, Hyun MS, Sung Y-K, Wood R. Accessed on 2003-08-27. http://www.fiu.edu/~aehrd/NativeAmerican/modules/module3.htm
  220. The function of the discussion section in academic medical writing. Skelton JR, Edwards SJL. British Medical Journal 2000: 320(7244); 1269-1270. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  221. Writing Empirical Research Reports. Pyrczak F, Randall BR (1998) Los Angeles, California: Pyrczak Publishing.
  222. Instructions to Authors in the Health Sciences. Ohio RHMLMCo. Accessed on 2000-10-02. www.mco.edu/lib/instr/libinsta.html
  223. The Gettysburg Powerpoint Presentation. 11/19/1863. Lincoln A, Norvig P. Accessed on 2003-10-15. www.norvig.com/Gettysburg/index.htm
  224. Writing about Health Risks Challenges and Strategies. Kamrin M, Ph.D, Larkin M, M.A. Accessed on 2003-08-27. http://www.acsh.org/publications/booklets/textbook.html
  225. The Science of Scientific Writing. Gopen GD, Swan JA, Published in the American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Vol. 78, pages 550-558. Accessed on 2003-01-02. www.research.att.com/~andreas/sci.html
  226. How to Write for Publication. Evans N, Robertson L. Accessed on 2003-05-29. www.nursingceu.com/NCEU/courses/publish/
  227. Resources for Medical Editors. Editors WAoM. Accessed on 2000-10-31. www.wame.org/rsources.htm
  228. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Editors ICoMJ. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.icmje.org/
  229. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association (1994) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN: 1557982414. [BookFinder4U link]
  230. Failed Publications: the medical model. Why are so many medical reports and newsletters written in pseudoscientific gobbledygook? tim albert considers these sad creations. Albert T. British Medical Journal 1998: 317(7155); 420.
  231. Universal Web Design. Waters C (1997) Indianapolis, Indiana: New Riders Publishing.
  232. English 102: Research Writing on the Web. Walker K, Parkland College. Accessed on 2004-03-22. virtual.parkland.edu/walker102/
  233. Spinster's Guide to Writing for the World Wide Web. Trainor C. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/ulib/sys/html/spin.html
  234. Mathematics on the Web: MathML and Math Type. Topping P, Published in the Design Science, Inc. White Papers Series (1999, January 21). Accessed on 2003-09-09. www.dessci.com/en/reference/white_papers/mt_mathml.htm
  235. Tips for Writers and Designers. Siegel D. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.dsiegel.com/tips/index.html
  236. Make your web site easy to use. Scheer R. Accessed on 2004-02-06. www.ronscheer.com/html/easy.html
  237. E-WRITE. Creating Better Online Writers. Rudick M, O'Flahavan L. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.ewriteonline.com/
  238. Citing Online Sources. Advice on Online Citation Formats. Quinion MB. Accessed on 2000-10-02. www.quinion.com/words/articles/citation.htm
  239. The Communication Circle: Tips. Price L, Price J. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.theprices.com/2sty.htm
  240. Guide to Online Style. Press CU. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html
  241. Locating Information in an Online Newspaper. Oostendorp Hv, Nimwegen Cv. JCMC 1998: 4(1); 1-10. [Full text]
  242. Writing for the Web. Nielsen J, Schemenaur P, Fox J. Accessed on 1998-02-06. www.sun.com/980713/webwriting/wftw2.html
  243. Report From a 1994 Web Usability Study. Nielsen J. Accessed on 2004-02-06. www.useit.com/papers/1994_web_usability_report.html
  244. Details in Study Methodology Can Give Misleading Results. Nielsen J. Accessed on 2004-04-12. www.useit.com/alertbox/990221.html
  245. Searching the World Wide Web. Lawrence S. Science 1998: 280) 98-100.
  246. Capital Idea!. Irving E, Lebeau A, Statistics Canada. Accessed on 2004-03-22. 142.206.72.66/2004/02/s0700_e.htm
  247. The Digital Object Identifier. International DOI Foundation. Accessed on 2003-04-30. www.doi.org/
  248. Iconico- Tools and services for graphic designers and web developers. Iconico. Accessed on 2005-04-21. www.iconico.com/index.aspx
  249. GetContentSize. Holovaty A. Accessed on 2003-10-16. www.holovaty.com/tools/getcontentsize/
  250. Enabling Extremely Rapid Navigation in Your Web or Document. Hoffman M, Published 3/21/1996. Accessed on 2004-02-06. engphys.mcmaster.ca/~garlandw/teach/format/hoffman.pdf
  251. Readability of Websites with Various Foreground/Background Color Combinations, Font Types and Word Styles. Hill AL, Scharff LFV, Dr. Accessed on 2003-02-10. hubel.sfasu.edu/research/AHNCUR.html
  252. Linking to Full Text in Scholarly Journals: Here a Link, There a Link, Everywhere a Link. Grogg JE, Tenopir C, Published in Searcher, Vol. 8, No. 10 (Nov/Dec 2000). Accessed on 2005-01-19. www.infotoday.com/searcher/nov00/grogg&tenopir.htm
  253. Content Spotlight: The Persistence of Content. Gahran A. Accessed on 2004-02-05. www.content-exchange.com/cx/html/newsletter/1-10/vt1-10.htm
  254. CONTENTIOUS: The newsletter for people who create or publish CONTENT for online media. Gahran A. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.contentious.com/
  255. W3C Math Home. Froumentin M. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.w3.org/Math/
  256. What is good hypertext writing?. Degener J. Accessed on 2002-11-27. kbs.cs.tu-berlin.de/~jutta/ht/writing.html
  257. Web Graphic Design: It's Not What You Think. Brown K, Degenhart C, Published in Dr. Dobb's Software Tools for the Professional Programmer (1998, September 24). Accessed on 2004-02-06. www.ddj.com/documents/s=2894/nam1012433861/
  258. How to write for the INTRAnet. Bricklin D. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.gooddocuments.com/homepage/homepage.htm
  259. Capitalization. Bistrovich M, Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed on 2004-03-22. www.rit.edu/~932www/style_guide/
  260. Don't Make This Web Site Mistake. Berst J. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.zdnet.com/anchordesk/story/story_2628.html
  261. Style Guide for online hypertext. Berners-Lee T. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.w3.org/Provider/Style/Overview.html
  262. Content Can Make or Break Your Online Business. Bayan. R. Accessed on 2002-11-27. www.writeedge.com/articles/content.asp
  263. Electronic preprints: what should the BMJ do? [editorial]. T. Delamothe. British Medical Journal 1998: 316(7134); 794-5.
  264. Free Internet Access to Traditional Journals. Thomas J. Walker. American Scientist 1998: 86(5); ? [Abstract] [Full text]
  265. Public Library of Science. Public Library of Science. Accessed on 2002-12-16.www.publicLibraryofscience.org/
  266. Who should own scientific papers? S. Bachrach, R. S. Berry, M. Blume, T. von Foerster, A. Fowler, P. Ginsparg, S. Heller, N. Kestner, A. Odlyzko, A. Okerson, R. Wigington, A. Moffat. Science 1998: 281(5382); 1459-60. [Medline] [Full text]
  267. Babelfish Translation. AltaVista. Accessed on 2002-10-23. Translate to/from Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish. babelfish.altavista.com/
  268. Bullfighter -- Stripping The Bull Out Of Business. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. Accessed on 2003-06-16. "Bullfighter is software that runs in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, within Microsoft Office 2000 or XP. It works a lot like the spelling and grammar checker in those applications, but focuses on jargon and readability." www.dc.com/bullfighter/
  269. Maths Thesaurus. University of Cambridge. Accessed on 2002-10-03. "Presently the thesaurus contains definitions of 4006 concepts, with 14583 cross-references between concepts. It is this richness of crossreferencing which leads us to call the project a thesaurus of mathematics; it is much more than an alphabetical list of words and their definitions." thesaurus.maths.org/
  270. Merriam-Webster OnLine. Merriam-Webster. Accessed on 2002-11-27. Free online dictionary and thesaurus and information about their commercial products and services. www.m-w.com/mw/netdict.htm
  271. Newspapers US and Worldwide. Bob Drudge. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Abstract not available yet." Links to newspaper web pages. www.refdesk.com/paper.html
  272. Refdesk: reference, facts, news, free and family friendly. Bob Drudge. Accessed on 2003-04-23. "The single best source for facts on the Net." www.refdesk.com/
  273. Welcome to CyberSAC, a Self-Access Center. Diane Pilkinton-Pihko, Language and Communication Centre, Helsinki University of Technology. Accessed on 2003-08-27. "This site provides information, advice, and materials for students who are working to improve their English." www.hut.fi/~dpihko/cyberSAC/cybersac.htm
  274. Failed Publications: the medical model. Why are so many medical reports and newsletters written in pseudoscientific gobbledygook? tim albert considers these sad creations. T. Albert. British Medical Journal 1998: 317(7155); 420. Abstract not available yet.
  275. The function of the discussion section in academic medical writing. John R Skelton, Sarah J L Edwards. British Medical Journal 2000: 320(7244); 1269-1270. [Medline] [Full text] [PDF]
  276. Handbook of Current Medical Abbreviations. Author Unknown (1997) Philadelphia: The Charles Press.
  277. How to Write for Publication. Nancy Evans, Lauren Robertson. Accessed on 2003-05-29. "Not so very long ago, you had to wait months, even years, to get an article into print in a nursing journal - even after the article had been accepted. Not any more. Computers and the Internet have revved up every facet of publishing with online publishing leading the pack. It's fast, fast, fast relief for the truly impatient writer who yearns to share his or her insight, experience and opinions…and earn money. If this is you, read on." www.nursingceu.com/NCEU/courses/publish/
  278. Instructions to Authors in the Health Sciences. Raymon H. Mulford Library / Medical College of Ohio. Accessed on 2000-10-02. "These pages contain links to Web sites which provide instructions to authors for over 3,000 journals in the health and life sciences. All links are to 'primary sources,' that is to publishers or organizations with editorial responsibilities for the titles." www.mco.edu/lib/instr/libinsta.html
  279. Module 3 - Writing Effective Learning Objectives. Douglas H. Smith, Sondee Domingez, Felicitas Fernandez, Myung Sook Hyun, Yung-Kun Sung, Robert Wood. Accessed on 2003-08-27. "This module will answer the following questions: What are learning objectives? Why are objectives important? How do you write objectives?" http://www.fiu.edu/~aehrd/NativeAmerican/modules/module3.htm
  280. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association (1994) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  281. Resources for Medical Editors. World Association of Medical Editors. Accessed on 2000-10-31. "This page links you to many information resources on the Web that are useful for medical editors." www.wame.org/rsources.htm
  282. The Science of Scientific Writing. George D. Gopen, Judith A. Swan. Accessed on 2003-01-02. "Science is often hard to read. Most people assume that its difficulties are born out of necessity, out of the extreme complexity of scientific concepts, data and analysis. We argue here that complexity of thought need not lead to impenetrability of expression; we demonstrate a number of rhetorical principles that can produce clarity in communication without oversimplifying scientific issues. The results are substantive, not merely cosmetic: Improving the quality of writing actually improves the quality of thought." This Article appeared in the American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Volume 78, 550-558. www.research.att.com/~andreas/sci.html
  283. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "A small group of editors of general medical journals met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1978 to establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals. The group became known as the Vancouver Group. Its requirements for manuscripts, including formats for bibliographic references developed by the National Library of Medicine, were first published in 1979. The Vancouver Group expanded and evolved into the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which meets annually; gradually it has broadened its concerns." www.icmje.org/
  284. Webster's New Complete Medical Dictionary. Author Unknown (1995) New York: Merriam-Webster.
  285. Writing about Health Risks Challenges and Strategies. Michael Kamrin, Ph.D, Marilynn Larkin, M.A. Accessed on 2003-08-27. "Reporting about health risks isn't easy. It involves an understanding of the complexities of risk assessment, an ability to distinguish between scientific and pseudoscientific information, the capacity to evaluate and digest complicated material, and the communication skills to portray the risk in the proper context. Simplistic or contradictory messages can leave readers confused and wary; they "tune out"—and you lose your audience." http://www.acsh.org/publications/booklets/textbook.html
  286. Writing Empirical Research Reports. Fred Pyrczak, Bruce R. Randall (1998) Los Angeles, California: Pyrczak Publishing.
  287. Citing Online Sources. Advice on Online Citation Formats. Michael B. Quinion. Accessed on 2000-10-02. "Abstract not available yet." Advice culled from several sources on the best way to present online sources in a bibliography. Mr. Quinion gives good explanations behind the rationale for various pieces of information. www.quinion.com/words/articles/citation.htm
  288. The Communication Circle: Tips. Lisa Price, Jonathan Price. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Here are some quick ways to tighten up your style when you write web prose." www.theprices.com/2sty.htm
  289. Content Can Make or Break Your Online Business. Ruby Bayan. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Abstract not available yet." "Mindful of the staggering growth of online users and e-tail revenue potential, businesses have scrambled to concoct virtual versions of their brick-and-mortar storefronts. No matter how ample or deficient in Internet savvy, commercial sites are vying for the attention of the more than 28 million surfers -- and counting -- who are buying on the web. So how exactly do you attract the new ‘Net denizens to your e-store and entice them to hit the “Submit Order” button? Experts say the answer depends on the content you offer and how your site presents that content to users." www.writeedge.com/articles/content.asp
  290. CONTENTIOUS: The newsletter for people who create or publish CONTENT for online media. Amy Gahran. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Abstract not available yet." "CONTENTIOUS is a Web-zine for writers, editors, and others who create content for online media – Web sites, e-mail publications, intranets, and so on. These people view online media not simply as a new way to practice their skills, but as a way to make a living. Also, they primarily are concerned with what online venues have to say, and how well they say it. The design, coding, and technologies used to present information online are, for these readers, of secondary importance (although often these topics are closely related to content)." www.contentious.com/
  291. The Digital Object Identifier. International DOI Foundation. Accessed on 2003-04-30. "The Digital Object Identifier (DOI®) is a system for identifying and exchanging intellectual property in the digital environment. It provides a framework for managing intellectual content, for linking customers with content suppliers, for facilitating electronic commerce, and enabling automated copyright management for all types of media. Using DOIs makes managing intellectual property in a networked environment much easier and more convenient, and allows the construction of automated services and transactions for e-commerce." www.doi.org/
  292. Don't Make This Web Site Mistake. Jesse Berst. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Abstract not available yet." "Every business wants to succeed in the new millennium. Not every business will make it. Worse, some will fail not because they built a lousy business. But because they built a lousy Web site." www.zdnet.com/anchordesk/story/story_2628.html
  293. E-WRITE. Creating Better Online Writers. Marilynne Rudick, Leslie O'Flahavan. Accessed on 2002-11-27. Training resources for web writers. www.ewriteonline.com/
  294. Guide to Online Style. Columbia University Press. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "The primary elements of a bibliographic reference are the same for most styles of documentation, although the order in which they are presented may vary. These elements include the name of the author, the title, the place of publication, the publisher's name, the date of publication, and a designation of the location, or page number, of a reference. Many styles also include a designation of the publication medium. For electronic sources, however, some elements may be missing or must be translated into elements that make sense in a new era of publishing." www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html
  295. How to write for the INTRAnet. Dan Bricklin. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "A web-site that discusses how to create good business documents in the linked, on-screen environment of Intranets and the Internet." www.gooddocuments.com/homepage/homepage.htm
  296. Locating Information in an Online Newspaper. Herre van Oostendorp, Christof van Nimwegen. JCMC 1998: 4(1); 1-10. In this study several aspects of the usability of an online newspaper are examined. More specifically, the effects of reading-manipulation techniques such as scrolling and using hyperlinks on finding information at different locations are studied. Subjects participated in two sessions with a one-week interval. In each session subjects received a number of searching tasks consisting of finding information at different locations in the newspaper. Speed and accuracy were measured, and afterwards subjects received a recognition task. In general subjects were highly satisfied with the online newspaper. Their performance on the searching tasks was very adequate, even on deeper levels. It took, logically, more time to locate the information by scrolling down or by using a hyperlink to go to a next level than when the hyperlink leading to the desired information was immediately available on screen. The recognition performance was also worse. Locating information after scrolling and after using a hyperlink took approximately the same amount of time, and the recognition performance was about equal. However, an interaction effect was also found between reading-manipulation technique and hypertextual level. In particular, finding information for which scrolling down on a deeper hypertextual level was necessary took extra time and probably extra cognitive resources, leading to a lower recognition performance. It is concluded that it is probably better, if possible, to avoid presenting information on deeper hypertextual levels for which scrolling is necessary. [Full text]
  297. Readability of Websites with Various Foreground/Background Color Combinations, Font Types and Word Styles. Alyson L. Hill, Lauren F. V. Scharff, Dr. Accessed on 2003-02-10. "The effects of 6 foreground/background color combinations (color), 3 font types (Arial, Courier New, & Times New Roman), and 2 word styles (Italicized & Plain) on readability of websites investigated. Particapants (N=42) scanned simulated websites for a target word; readability was inferred from reaction time (RT). An ANOVA showed significant main effects for color and font, and several significant interactions (Figure 1). A control experiment (N=21) using black text on shades of gray (to increase generalizablity to Internet browerssettings), also found significant main effects for background gray level and styles, and several interactions (Figure 2). In general these results suggest that there is no one foreground/background combination, font, or word style which leads to the faster RT (i.e. best readability), but rather a designer must consider how each variable affects the other(s)." hubel.sfasu.edu/research/AHNCUR.html
  298. Spinster's Guide to Writing for the World Wide Web. Carole Trainor. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "The purpose of these documents is to introduce key technical and design concepts involved in the production of Web (HTML) Pages." www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/ulib/sys/html/spin.html
  299. Style Guide for online hypertext. Tim Berners-Lee. Accessed on 2002-11-27.  "This guide is designed to help you create a WWW hypertext database that effectively communicates your knowledge to the reader. It has been prepared in the light of comments by readers, and many demands by providers of online documentation. Some of the points made may be influenced by personal preference, and some may be common sense, but a collection of points has been demanded, and so here it is." www.w3.org/Provider/Style/Overview.html
  300. Tips for Writers and Designers. David Siegel. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Whether you're a home (page) maker, an e-mailer, or a web site graphic designer, these tips will help you be a better communicator on the Net. If you are mostly a browser and e-mailer, try the first few tips. If you're into making your HTML pages look great, everything here is for you." www.dsiegel.com/tips/index.html
  301. Universal Web Design. Crystal Waters (1997) Indianapolis, Indiana: New Riders Publishing.
  302. What is good hypertext writing?. Jutta Degener. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "There is more to writing than putting words next to each other, and there is more to writing hypertext than throwing together a bunch of links. When writing text, I have certain goals; when I come across text I dislike, there are certain reasons why I do not like it. You're about to read an attempt to describe these reasons and goals; it is incomplete, subjective, and honest." kbs.cs.tu-berlin.de/~jutta/ht/writing.html
  303. The Glossary of Mathematical Mistakes. Paul Cox. Accessed on 2000-06-29. "This is a list of mathematical mistakes made over and over by advertisers, the media, reporters, politicians, activists, and in general many non-math people. These come from many sources, which will appear in parenthesis. I will try to find an actual example of each for learning purposes." www.mathmistakes.com/
  304. Maths Thesaurus. University of Cambridge. Accessed on 2002-10-03. "Presently the thesaurus contains definitions of 4006 concepts, with 14583 cross-references between concepts. It is this richness of crossreferencing which leads us to call the project a thesaurus of mathematics; it is much more than an alphabetical list of words and their definitions." http://thesaurus.maths.org/
  305. Topic: HumanSideStatistics
  306. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: The Nature of Evidence. Rensberger B. Science 2000: 289(5476); 61-. [Abstract] [Full text]
  307. Why scientists should cooperate with journalists. Rensberger B. Sci Eng Ethics 2000: 6(4); 549-52. [Medline]
  308. Statistical computing
  309. Statistical Computing Tools from the Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Health Evaluation Sciences. Frank Harrell. Accessed on 2002-11-27. Macros/functions/add-ons for S-Plus, R, Gauss, SAS, and informational handouts. hesweb1.med.virginia.edu/biostat/s/
  310. Biosoft: Software for Science. Biosoft. Accessed on 2003-03-14. "Biosoft sells Windows based scientific software packages for a wide range of purposes. These include programs for data analysis, graph plotting, statistics, densitometry, assays, ligand-binding studies, kinetics, teaching and more. In a world of Bloatware, which never does quite what you want it to, BIOSOFT still produces precision scientific tools specified according to what you tell us is needed. We've been doing it since 1983 - nobody else in this field has more experience." www.biosoft.com/
  311. ForecastX Wizard. John Galt Solutions. Accessed on 2003-06-13. "As a recognized leader in the forecast and collaborative planning market, John Galt Solutions provides accurate business forecasting, automated demand planning and real-time web collaboration. Our unique supply chain management software solutions result in success for our clients as they are able to maximize profits and optimize the value of their processes. Our clients continually lower costs, save time, build better customer & vendor relationships and stay competitive by empowering the entire supply chain with our innovative software and services. Over 5000 customers around the world utilize John Galt's ForecastX™ supply chain solutions and capabilities to leverage IT investments, integrate and evolve business processes and effectively manage and predict demand." www.johngalt.com
  312. Metafile Companion. The Windows Metafile Editor. Companion Software. Accessed on 2003-06-12. "Metafile Companion makes it easy to create and edit WMF and EMF files. It's great for customizing WMF clip art and for editing graphs, charts and drawings from almost any Windows application! Use it to edit practically anything copied to the Windows clipboard (in Picture format) or saved in a WMF or EMF file." www.companionsoftware.com/
  313. Software Page. Detail Technologies. Accessed on 2003-04-29. "MPA is a powerful data entry package that is easy to use. It is designed specifically for the market research industry by professional market researchers. MPA reads and writes mainframe compatible 360 column binary data files and holds up to 300 "cards" of data per respondent. MPA simplifies data entry by providing a complete "heads-down" system and checks many aspects of data as it is entered. The MPA package consists of three parts; the MASK section, the DATA ENTRY system and the VERIFICATION/EDITING section. Together they provide a complete data entry package that can be learned quickly by anyone." www.dvrinc.net/dt/html/software.html
  314. STATLETS: a collection of Java applets designed to assist you in analyzing data over the Internet or local intranets. StatPoint, LLC. Accessed on 2003-06-13. "STATLETS is a collection of over 50 Java applets designed to assist you in analyzing data over the Internet, local intranets, or on your personal computer." www.sgcorp.com/statlets.htm
  315. Java applets for power and sample size. Russ Lenth, University of Iowa. Accessed on 2003-06-13. "Each selection provides a graphical interface for studying the power of one or more tests. They include sliders (convertible to number-entry fields) for varying parameters, and a simple provision for graphing one variable against another." www.stat.uiowa.edu/~rlenth/Power/
  316. NetEpi - Free, open source, network-enabled tools for epidemiology and public health practice. Centre for Epidemiology and Research. Accessed on 2005-04-06. NetEpi, which is short for "Network-enabled Epidemiology", is a collaborative project to create a suite of free, open source software tools for epidemiology and public health practice. Anyone with an interest in population health epidemiology or public health informatics is encouraged to examine the prototype tools and to consider contributing to their further development. Contributions which involve formal and/or informal testing of the tools in a wide range of circumstances and environments are particularly welcome, as is assistance with design, programming and documentation tasks. www.netepi.org
  317. The Omega Project for Statistical Computing. Douglas Bates, John Chambers, Di Cook, Peter Dalgaard, Robert Gentleman, Kurt Hornik, Ross Ihaka, Friedrich Leisch, Thomas Lumley, Martin Mächler, Guido Masarotto, Paul Murrell, Balasubramanian Narasimhan, Brian Ripley, Günther Sawitzki, Duncan Temple Lang, Luke Tierney, Bill Venables. Accessed on 2003-06-13. "Omega is a joint project with the goal of providing a variety of open-source software for statistical applications. The Omega project began in July, 1998, with discussions among designers responsible for three current statistical languages (S, R, and Lisp-Stat), with the idea of working together on new directions with special emphasis on web-based software, Java, the Java virtual machine, and distributed computing. We encourage participation by anyone wanting to extend computing capabilities in one of the existing languages, to those interested in distributed or web-based statistical software, and to those interested in the design of new statistical languages." www.omegahat.org/
  318. Software by Gary King. Gary King. Accessed on 2003-02-18. Statistical software and other software projects. gking.harvard.edu/stats.shtml
  319. Some Free Public Health & Epidemiology Software. Mark Myatt. Accessed on 2002-12-20. "This page allows you to download free software written by me (Mark Myatt) and others. Click any of the links below for more information: EpiCalc 2000 Statistical calculator, FP Advisor Foodborne disease database, SampleXS Sample size calculator for cross-sectional surveys, SigmaD Standardisation of measurement, SOUNDEX Calculators Confidentiality of data / identification of duplicate records, SampleLQ Sample size calculator for LQAS surveys, SampleRate Sample size calculator for a single rate, EpiGram Simple diagramming software, Statistical Utilities Miscellaneous statistical and epidemiological utilities (by Ray Simons and others), EpiInfo Add-ins Logistic regression and survival analysis for EpiInfo .REC files." www.myatt.demon.co.uk/index.htm
  320. Statistics Calculators. Jan de Leeuw, Arno Ouwehand. Accessed on 2003-06-13. "The majority of these calculators have been written in PHP 4. PHP is a server-side scripting language. We have extended PHP 4 with a set of computational and graphical functions and incorporated it as a module in the Apache Server. All original PHP/FI (PHP 2) programs by Jan de Leeuw, unless otherwise indicated. Converted to PHP 4 by Arno Ouwehand. Disclaimer: these calculators are provided without support, any functional problems (server errors, broken links) can be reported to webstaff any statistics related questions can be submitted to the free consulting forum." calculators.stat.ucla.edu/
  321. ViSta - The Visual Statistics System. Forrest W. Young. Accessed on 2003-04-14. "ViSta, the Visual Statistics System, features statistical visualizations that are highly dynamic and very interactive." www.visualstats.org/
  322. Web Pages that Perform Statistical Calculations. John C. Pezzullo. Accessed on 2003-06-13. "The web pages listed here comprise a powerful, conveniently-accessible, multi-platform statistical software package. There are also links to online statistics books, tutorials, downloadable software, and related resources. All of these resources are freely accessible, once you can get onto the Internet." members.aol.com/johnp71/javastat.html
  323. What is EpiData? EpiData Association. Accessed on 2003-04-29. "EpiData is a comprehensive easy to use tool for simple or programmed data entry and for data documentation. EpiData is free thanks to donations received (and voluntary work) and is currently developed for windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP. (Works on PowerMac with emulator, tests on linux ongoing using wine emulator)." www.epidata.dk/
  324. W3C Math Home. Max Froumentin. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "MathML 2.0, a W3C Recommendation was released on 21 Feb 2001. A product of the W3C Math working group, MathML is a low-level specification for describing mathematics as a basis for machine to machine communication. It provides a much needed foundation for the inclusion of mathematical expressions in Web pages." www.w3.org/Math/
  325. AnswerNet: Asterisks in pivot tables output. SPSS, Inc. Accessed on 2003-05-28. "In some cells in my pivot tables output I get all asterisks. Does this mean that the data is missing? Why am I getting this output?" http://www.spss.com/tech/answer/details.cfm?tech_tan_id=100001558
  326. Excel 2 SAS and Back Webpage. Don Cram. Accessed on 2002-11-27. "Transfering data from Excel to SAS is a frequently raised problem. Many seem to think they have "the answer", i.e. some method that works for them. But in fact how to do it best depends on characteristics of your data, the operating systems/platforms you are transfering between, your SAS version number, and the software tools you have available." www.stanford.edu/class/gsb/excel2sas.html
  327. Experimental WWW pages for teaching Statistics. Juha Puranen. Accessed on November 26, 2002. Some very nice interactive programs that illustrate statistical concepts. noppa5.pc.helsinki.fi/koe/index.html
  328. AMOS http://www.smallwaters.com/
  329. DBMS/Copy http://www.conceptual.com/
  330. MLWin http://www.ioe.ac.uk/mlwin/
  331. nmle beta test 3.0 http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/departments/sia/project/nlme/Beta/index.html
  332. Peturb macro for SAS http://baserv.uci.kun.nl/~johnh/perturb/perturb.html
  333. Quantitative Psychology Software http://psychology.iupui.edu/fb/
  334. S+ http://www.mathsoft.com/splus/
  335. SAS http://www.sas.com/
  336. StatXact http://www.cytel.com/
  337. Unify/Pow http://www.bio.ri.ccf.org/power.html
  338. http://www.livemath.com/ LiveMath Software. Link last verified on March 29, 2000. "Tactile Intuitive Powerful Web-Shareable Computer Algebra and Graphing For Macintosh and Windows Platforms."
  339. Scripps Academic Computing SPSS Home Page. Nancy Parker. http://www.scrippscol.edu/scripps/net/staff/guides/spss/spss.html "This web site, contains information for new users on how to use SPSS on either the PC (Windows) or Macintosh platform. Topics covered include how to set up your data for entry into the computer, data entry, transformations and a simple example of a statistical procedure."
  340. Raynald's SPSS Tools. Raynald Levesque. http://pages.infinit.net/rlevesqu/ The site presents sample syntax, macros, and scripts for perform advanced and specialized tasks in SPSS.
  341. Correlation and Scattergram Applet from Seeing Statistics http://www.duxbury.com/authors/mcclellandg/tiein/johnson/correlation.htm
  342. Hyperstat http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~lane/hyperstat/intro.html
  343. Cytel Software Homepage
  344. Data Description, Inc
  345. MLWin
  346. StatView Software
  347. UnifyPow A SAS Module-Macro for Sample-Size .
  348. W3C Math MathML puts math on the Web
  349. Topic: BayesianStatistics
  350. Teaching Inference about Proportions Using Bayes and Discrete Models. Jim Albert, Bowling Green State University. Accessed on 2003-03-03. This article in the web based Journal of Statistics Education discusses a Bayesian approach to testing probabilities. The examples involve home run hitting and the use of ECMO in pre-term infants. This is as simple an introduction to the concept of Bayesian Statistics as I have seen. www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v3n3/albert.html
  351. Bayeseans vs. Non-Bayeseans. Sam Allen, Hossein Arsham, Ernest Bowen, Krzysztof Burdzy, Peter G. Hamer, Henry of Rotherhithe, Robert Israel, Bill Jefferys, David Lee, Bill Mays, Amnon Rapoport, K. L. Q. Read, Ted Rosencrantz, Darryl A. Seale and Charles D. H. Williams, The Rancocas Valley Journal of Applied Mathematics. Accessed on 2003-03-03. members.tripod.com/~Probability/bayes02.htm
  352. Statistical Literacy. Milo Schield, Dept. of Business Administration, Augsburg College. Accessed on 2003-03-03. This personal web page has some interesting papers about how to teach elementary statistics using a Bayesian approach. These papers are in Adobe Acrobat format. www.augsburg.edu/ppages/~schield/
  353. Bayesian Model Averaging. Chris Volinsky. Accessed on 2003-03-03. www.research.att.com/~volinsky/bma.html
  354. Toward evidence-based medical statistics. 2: The Bayes factor. S. N. Goodman. Ann Intern Med 1999: 130(12); 1005-13.
  355. Bayesian Clinical Trial Design in a Cancer Center. P.F. Thall. Chance 2001: 14(3); 23-28.
  356. Bayesian meta-analysis, with application to studies of ETS and lung cancer. RL Tweedie, DJ Scott, BJ Biggerstaff and KL Mengersen. 1994.

Webpages with articles not yet in the common format

I am trying to update the bibliography of my web pages to a common format. I want to place the bibliography in a category page as opposed to a more specific page to avoid duplication.

Here are the category pages that need work

  1. Category: Confidence intervals (17)
  2. Category: Conflict of interest
  3. Category: Control charts
  4. Category: Corroborating evidence
  5. Category: Covariate adjustment
  6. Category: Critical appraisal
  7. Category: Data management
  8. Category: Data mining
  9. Category: Descriptive statistics
  10. Category: Early stopping
  11. Category: Equipoise in research
  12. Category: Ethics in research
  13. Category: Exclusions in research (2)
  14. Category: Fraud in research
  15. Category: Grant writing
  16. Category: Graphical display
  17. Category: Hypothesis testing
  18. Category: Illustrative examples
  19. Category: Information searching
  20. Category: Information theory
  21. Category: Logistic regression
  22. Category: Measuring agreement
  23. Category: Measuring benefit and risk
  24. Category: Multiple comparisons
  25. Category: Observational studies
  26. Category: Placebos in research
  27. Category: Poisson regression
  28. Category: Post hoc power
  29. Category: Presenting research data
  30. Category: Privacy in research
  31. Category: Publication bias
  32. Category: P-values
  33. Category: Qualitative data
  34. Category: R software
  35. Category: SPSS software
  36. Category: Statistical computing
  37. Category: Survey design
  38. Category: Teaching resources
  39. Category: Writing research papers

Here are the category pages that use the new common format.

  1. Category: Accrual problems in clinical trials
  2. Category: Adverse events in clinical trials
  3. Category: Analysis of means
  4. Category: Analysis of variance
  5. Category: Bayesian statistics
  6. Category: Blinding in research
  7. Category: Children in research
  8. Category: Diagnostic testing
  9. Category: Extrapolations in research
  10. Category: Linear regression
  11. Category: Mixed models
  12. Category: Modeling issues
  13. Category: Quality control
  14. Category: Randomization in research
  15. Category: Sample size justification
  16. Category: Statistical theory
  17. Category: Systematic overviews
  18. Category: Unusual data
  19. Category: Website details

Here are the category pages that don't have a bibliography (yet).

  1. Category: Administrative details
  2. Category: Ask Professor Mean
  3. Category: Clinical importance
  4. Category: Definitions
  5. Category: Epidemiology
  6. Category: Human side of statistics
  7. Category: Nonlinear regression
  8. Category: Pilot studies
  9. Category: Probability concepts
  10. Category: Professional details
  11. Category: Research designs
  12. Category: Small sample size issues
  13. Category: Statistical evidence
  14. Category: Survival analysis
  15. Category: Wiki pages

Pages other than category pages with bibliographies needing updating (incomplete list)

  1. P.Mean: Applications of the CUSUM chart (created 2006-06-20) (11)
  2. P.Mean: Monitoring accrual rates (created 2006-05-30) (1)
  3. P.Mean: I abhor Lilliefor and other tests of normality (created 2005-04-14) (3)
  4. P.Mean: Central Limit Theorem (created 2004-03-09)
  5. Stats: The Journal of Statistical Software (January 18, 2006) (2)
  6. Stats: Adjusting for a baseline measurement (February 28, 2005) (8)
  7. Stats: So you want to volunteer for a research study? (August 4, 2004) (2)
  8. Stats: Longitudinal data models (no date) (24)
  9. Stats: What is a quota sample? (3)
  10. Stats: Information theory models (May 26, 2004) (2)
  11. Stats: Page's test (September 3, 1999) (1)
  12. Stats: Number needed to treat (January 27, 2000) (33)
  13. Stats: Testing for side effects (December 29, 2004) (3)
  14. Stats: What is a weighted mean? (March 5, 2004) (2)
  15. Stats: Examples of a fishbone diagram (March 24, 2006) (2+)
  16. Stats: Examples of Pareto charts (April 5, 2006) (1+)
  17. Stats: Profile analysis and MANOVA (April 18, 2005) (2)
  18. Stats: What are odds? (1)
  19. Stats: T-test (April 18, 1999) (2)
  20. Stats: Best fitting curve (January 26, 2000) (2)
  21. Stats: So you want to write a questionnaire (July 12, 2002) (76)
  22. Stats: Log transformation (October 11, 2002) (2)
  23. Stats: Designing a pilot study (September 13, 1999) (3)
  24. Stats: Neyman bias (December 15, 2004) (2)
  25. Stats: Privacy concerns in research (July 12, 2002) (15)
  26. Stats: ROC curve (August 18, 1999) (19)
  27. Stats: Adaptive randomization (July 15, 2004) (2)
  28. Stats: Stopping a study early (October 29, 2002) (5)
  29. Stats: Subgroup analysis (December 21, 2004) (4)
  30. Stats: What is a purposive sample? (1)
  31. Stats: Outliers (January 28, 2000) (1)
  32. Stats: What is a Kappa coefficient? (Cohen's Kappa) (18+)
  33. Stats: Kaplan Meier (June 27, 2000) (2)
  34. Stats: Parametric versus nonparametric tests (July 30, 2001) (2)
  35. Stats: Is there a mechanism? (July 23, 2004) (1+)
  36. Stats: What is a Poisson distribution? (1)
  37. Stats: What is a convenience sample? (2)
  38. Stats: What is entropy? (1)
  39. Stats: What is a normal distribution? (1+)
  40. Stats: What is a geometric mean? (1)
  41. Stats: What is a mosaic plot? (1)
  42. Stats: R-squared (August 18, 1999) (2)
  43. Stats: Importing database files into SPSS (August 18, 1999) (2)
  44. Stats: Randomization (August 18, 1999) (1+)
  45. Stats: When the F test is significant, but Tukey is not (September 9, 2005) (1)
  46. Stats: Guidelines for poisson regression models (September 21, 1999) (1)
  47. Stats: Inputting a two-by-two table into SPSS (August 18, 1999) (1)
  48. Stats: Guidelines for logistic regression models (September 27, 1999) (1)
  49. Stats: Writing a research grant (September 13, 1999) (2)
  50. Stats: Is there outside corroboration? (4)
  51. Stats: Date calculations in SPSS (August 18, 1999) (1)
  52. Stats: What is a random sample? (1)
  53. Stats: E notation (September 3, 1999) (1)
  54. Stats: Bootstrap (January 26, 2000) (2)
  55. Stats: Three things you need for a power calculation (November 8, 2001) (4)
  56. Stats: Sample size for a confidence interval (January 26, 2000) (3)
  57. Stats: Sample size for Mann-Whitney U (September 28, 2000) (2)
  58. Stats: Alternating treatments (August 31, 2000) (3)
  59. Stats: Quick sample size calculations (October 11, 2001) (2)
  60. Stats: Causation (January 27, 2000) (4)
  61. Stats: Writing a methods section (January 15, 2001) (1)
  62. Stats: Sigma in the control chart (January 27, 2000) (3)
  63. Stats: Binary outcome sample size calculations (August 23, 2000) (3)
  64. Stats: Splines (January 27, 2000) (3)
  65. Stats: Flaws in a research paper (January 27, 2000) (1)
  66. Stats: Confidence interval with zero events (January 19, 2001) (3)
  67. Stats: Fisher's Exact Test (August 23, 2000) (2+)
  68. Stats: Physician Performance Data (January 27, 2000) (3)
  69. Stats: The minimal impact of population size on power and precision (January 19, 2001) (1)
  70. Stats: Jargon in Statistics (January 27, 2000) (4)
  71. Stats: Quota stratified random sampling (January 28, 2000) (4)
  72. Stats: Web polls (July 30, 2001) (3)
  73. Stats: Establishing validity and reliability (November 6, 2002) (73)
  74. Stats: The value of objective research (August 7, 2002) (3)
  75. Stats: Data is/are (November 26, 2003) (4)
  76. Stats: Getting IRB approval for your research (October 9, 2002) (3)
  77. Stats: Guidelines for data mining models (September 22, 2003) (5)
  78. Stats: Post hoc power (November 1, 2002) (9)
  79. Stats: Cluster randomization (May 9, 2003) (8+)
  80. Stats: Accuracy computations (November 26, 2003) (1)
  81. Stats: Randomization test (July 14, 2004) (3)
  82. Stats: A clumsy attempt at anonymization (August 15, 2006) (21+)
  83. Stats: Controversy over stopping a study early (November 24, 2004) (1)
  84. Stats: Free Full Text on the Web (August 24, 2004) (11)
  85. Stats: Confidence intervals (November 29, 2004) (3)
  86. Stats: What is construct validity? (March 8, 2006) (16+)
  87. Stats: Sample size for a survival data model (May 13, 2004) (9)
  88. Stats: Developing a research hypothesis (August 18, 1999) (3)
  89. Stats: Ethics of a placebo group (August 2, 2001) (29)
  90. Stats: Why informed consent is so important (May 2, 2003) (8)
  91. P.Mean: Alternating treatments (created 2000-08-22) (3)
  92. P.Mean: Binary outcome sample size calculations (created 2000-08-23)
  93. Unclassified pages

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Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License. This page was written by Steve Simon and was last modified on 2010-07-16.